File Name: dictionary of cell and molecular biology .zip
The Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology, Fifth Edition , provides definitions for thousands of terms used in the study of cell and molecular biology.
A cell is a membrane-bound structure that occurs as a functional independent unit of life such as in unicellular organisms, e. It is an autonomous self-replicating unit that may exist as a functional independent unit of life as in the case of a unicellular organism , or as a sub-unit in a multicellular organism such as in plants and animals that performs a particular function in tissues and organs.
Cells may be typified in different ways. For instance, based on the presence of a well-defined nucleus, a cell may be eukaryotic or prokaryotic.
Cells may also be classified based on the number of cells that make up an organism, i. Cells may be classified into two major types: prokaryotic cells e. The main difference between the two is a well-defined nucleus surrounded by a membranous nuclear envelope present only in eukaryotic cells.
Apart from the nucleus, there are other organelles found in eukaryotic cells. These organelles are mitochondria , plastids , endoplasmic reticulum , and Golgi apparatus. These organelles are not present in prokaryotic cells. Despite these differences, prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells share a number of common features: the genetic information is stored in genes , proteins serve as their main structural material, ribosomes are used to synthesize proteins, adenosine triphosphate is the main source of metabolic energy to sustain various cellular processes, and a cell membrane that controls the flow of substances into and out of the cell.
Cells may be used as a basis to describe organisms as unicellular or multicellular. Unicellular organisms are those that have only one cell, i. Examples are prokaryotes and protists.
Multicellular organisms are those possessing more than one cell. Examples are plants and animals. The cells of a multicellular organism may share common features and functions. These cells that act as a unit make up a tissue. The fundamental types of tissues in animals are epithelial tissues or epithelium , nerve tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue, and vascular tissue.
In plants, the different types of tissues are the embryonic or meristematic tissues such as apical meristem and cambium , the permanent tissues e. The permanent tissues may be further classified into fundamental e. Tissues that work in unison to carry out a specific set of functions form a biological organ. An example of acellular tissue is the hyphae of certain fungi. A cell is a membrane-bound structure containing cytoplasm and cytoplasmic structures. The cell membrane is made up of two layers of phospholipids with embedded proteins.
It separates the contents of the cell from its outside environment, as well as regulates what enters and exits the cell. Another interesting feature of the cell membrane is the presence of surface molecules e.
Other cells have additional protective cell layers on top of the cell membrane, e. The liquid component of the cytoplasm surrounding the organelles and other insoluble cytoplasmic structures in an intact cell where a wide variety of cell processes take place is called cytosol. The cytosol is comprised of water, ions e. The potassium ions are greater in number in the cytosol than the surrounding extracellular fluid. It is in the cytosol that many metabolic reactions take place, e.
These organelles perform special functions. Eukaryotic cells that carry out photosynthesis e. The presence of chloroplasts is one way to distinguish a plant cell from an animal cell. Other organelles that can be found in both plant cell and animal cell are the nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus.
The nucleus is the large organelle that contains the genetic material DNA organized into chromosomes. Mitochondria are regarded as the powerhouse of eukaryotic cells. That is because it is the organelle that supplies energy by generating adenosine triphosphate ATP through cellular respiration. The endoplasmic reticulum occurs as an interconnected network of flattened sacs or tubules involved in lipid synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, drug detoxification, and attachment of receptors on cell membrane proteins.
It is also involved in intracellular transport, such as the transport of the products of the rough endoplasmic reticulum to other cell parts like the Golgi apparatus. Golgi apparatus is comprised of membrane-bound stacks. It is involved in glycosylation, packaging of molecules for secretion, transporting of lipids within the cell, and giving rise to lysosomes.
For example, lysosomes and vacuoles are not considered by some references as organelles but cytoplasmic structures based on the account above.
Lysosomes are single-membraned structures containing various digestive enzymes, and thus, are involved in intracellular digestion. Vacuoles, in turn, are membrane-bound vesicles involved in intracellular secretion, excretion, storage, and digestion.
Similarly, ribosomes are not organelle but cytoplasmic structures. A prokaryotic cell lacks the typical membrane-bound organelles present in a eukaryotic cell. Nevertheless, it may possess certain organellar-like structures such as carboxysome a protein-shell compartment for carbon fixation in some bacteria , chlorosome a light-harvesting complex in green sulfur bacteria , and magnetosome found in magnetotactic bacteria , and thylakoid in some cyanobacteria.
It also has a nucleosome, which is not a double-membraned structure but a region in the prokaryotic cell containing nuclear material.
These organelles are semi-autonomous. Because of this, they are presumed to have come from endosymbiotic bacteria according to the Endosymbiotic theory. Cell cycle pertains to the sequence of growth and division of a cell. In essence, the cell cycle involves the duplication of DNA via DNA replication and this leads to the division of the parent cell, yielding two daughter cells. These processes are essential for cell growth, replication, and division.
In eukaryotes, the cell cycle is comprised of a series of biological events namely the resting phase , the interphase, the cell division. During the resting phase, the cell is in an inactive, non-cycling state.
The interphase is comprised of three stages: G1 , S phase , and G2. The final stage is cell division. Cell division is the process wherein a parent cell divides, giving rise to two or more daughter cells. It is a vital cellular process because it enables growth, repair, and reproduction. In eukaryotes, cell division may be in the form of mitosis or meiosis. In mitosis , the result is two genetically identical cells. In meiosis , the result is four genetically non-identical cells.
Cells after dividing will undergo growth. The growth of the cell is enabled by metabolism. Metabolism may be categorized into two: catabolism and anabolism.
Catabolism includes a series of degradative chemical reactions that break down complex molecules into smaller units, usually releasing energy in the process. Anabolism includes a sequence of chemical reactions that constructs or synthesizes molecules from smaller units, usually requiring an input of energy ATP in the process.
Thus, biomolecules, such as nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids are produced, stored, and degraded inside the cell. Proteins, in turn, are synthesized by the ribosomes. Lipid synthesis occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum.
Some cells have specialized structures involved in locomotion. Flagella , for instance, are long, slender, threadlike, whiplike extensions that enable movement by propulsion. Some flagella though are not used for movement but for sensation and signal transduction, e. Cilia are hair-like projections on the surfaces of some cells.
Cilia are generally of two kinds: motile cilia for locomotion and non-motile cilia for sensory. Examples of tissue cells with cilia are the epithelia lining the lungs that sweep away fluids or particles. Examples of organisms that have cilia are protozoans that use them for movement. Cell biology or cytology is the scientific study of cells.
Robert Hooke was named as the first to discover cells, in Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann were the ones who first formulated the Cell theory , in Test your knowledge: Overview of the Cell Quiz. The cell is defined as the fundamental, functional unit of life.
Some organisms are comprised of only one cell whereas others have many cells that are organized into tissues, organs, and systems. The scientific study of the cell is called cell biology. This field deals with the cell structure and function in detail. It covers.. Read More. Plantlife can be studied at a variety of levels, from the molecular, genetic and biochemical level through organelles, cells, tissues, organs, individuals, plant populations, and communities of plants.
These tutorials will help you learn and appreciate plants regarding their distinctive structures and remarkable inherent strategies for thriving and survival. Physiology is the study of how living organisms function. Thus, human physiology deals specifically with the physiological attributes of the human body at various levels of organization, i.
Human physiology is important because it imparts an in-depth understanding of the vital processes that.. Animals adapt to their environment in aspects of anatomy, physiology, and behavior.
This tutorial will help you understand how animals adapt to their habitat. For instance, how animals thrive in aquatic habitat and are able to overcome osmosis. It also sheds light on the reasons animals adapt Regulation of Biological Systems tutorials are focused on the modulation of biological systems from cell to population levels.
William Astbury described molecular biology in in Nature , as:. It is concerned particularly with the forms of biological molecules and [ It must at the same time inquire into genesis and function. Some clinical research and medical therapies arising from molecular biology are covered under gene therapy whereas the use of molecular biology or molecular cell biology in medicine is now referred to as molecular medicine. Molecular biology also plays important role in understanding formations, actions, and regulations of various parts of cells which can be used to efficiently target new drugs , diagnose disease, and understand the physiology of the cell. While molecular biology was established as an official branch of science in the s, the term wasn't coined until by Warren Weaver.
The Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology provides a comprehensive survey of modern biochemistry and molecular biology. Fully revised and updated, this new edition includes definitions of terms from the fields of Bioinformatics, Biophysics, Cell Biology, Chemistry, Genetics, Immunology, Mathematics, Microbiology, Pharmacology, Systems Biology, and Toxicology. Entries are short and informative, covering details of biochemical substances and the processes in which they are involved, methods and concepts in molecular biology, and definitions of biochemical symbols and abbreviations. Each entry is accessibly written, pointing out the pitfalls where terms are often confused and providing recommended nomenclature and alternative names. Access to the complete content on Oxford Reference requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.
The over 10, entries in this comprehensive Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology provide clear and concise definitions for anyone working in life sciences today. It incorporates related terms from neuroscience, genetics, microbiology, immunology, pathology, and physiology. This fourth revised edition reflects the enormous changes brought about by the explosion of new technologies, especially high throughput approaches and functional genomics. As with the prior edition, additions are reflective of online search queries performed by users of the dictionary. The entries in this authoritative work have been widely praised for their clarity, brevity, and accuracy throughout.
Purchase The Dictionary of Cell & Molecular Biology - 4th Edition. E-Book. ISBN
With over 12, entries and a breadth of terms across bioscience, including plant molecular biology, microbiology and biotechnology, this revision reflects the changes in the research over the past few years. The latest edition of The Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology maintains its outstanding reputation as an authoritative, clear, and accessible reference with short, cross-referenced definitions of important technical terminology. Notes on the use of pure yeasts in wine making Volume no. It makes every specific overseas problem virtually impossible for us to. Each was heavily armed in order to permit him to handle anything the enemy might throw at them.
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Beer, vinegar, tempeh, soya sauce, rice wine too are fermented products. Microbiology has been very useful in preservation of food by heat processing, by pasteurization and appertization commercially sterile food , by calculating thermal death values, prevention of spoilage of canned foods, aspectic packaging, irradiation, UV radiation, ionizing radiation, high pressure. JMB is run by scientists for scientists ; JMB editors strive to provide a quick and fair peer-review ; The journal is dedicated to supporting the research community through conference sponsorships offering with particular highlight of early career scientists learn about JMB's Career Advancement Initiative and VolunPeers JMB's mentoring program in peer-review. Understanding how that digital code directs the creation of life is the goal of molecular biology. Hynes 2 Citation: Goyal, R. Aims and Scope.
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