history of jammu and kashmir after 1947 pdf

History of jammu and kashmir after 1947 pdf

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Jammu and Kashmir

Kashmir, a mountainous valley that borders Pakistan and India, has been a center of conflict between the two nuclear-armed countries since the partition of British India. At the time of the partition, the British agreed to divide their former colony into two countries: Pakistan, with a Muslim majority, and India, with a Hindu majority.

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Jammu and Kashmir , union territory of India until October 31, , a state , located in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent in the vicinity of the Karakoram and westernmost Himalayan mountain ranges. The territory is part of the larger region of Kashmir , which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan , and China since the partition of the subcontinent in Legislation passed in August set the stage for downgrading Jammu and Kashmir from statehood to union territory status and splitting off a part of it, known as the Ladakh region, into a separate union territory. The change went into effect on October 31 of that year, though several court cases affecting its status remained pending. The information that follows describes the former state of Jammu and Kashmir, including the Ladakh region.

Located north of the Himalayan mountain range and sandwiched between Pakistan and China is a small nation known as Jammu and Kashmir. In recent weeks, the country has been a major focus on the world stage after it was officially absorbed into the Republic of India. This is a result of the scrapping of Article , a constitutional provision rooted in a complex history between India and Jammu and Kashmir. An agreement, formally known as the Instrument of Accession, was signed in after a Pakastani invasion of Jammu and Kashmir, officially making the state an Indian territory. It was then that Abdulla and Nehru began drafting Article , a provision that aimed to give the people of Jammu and Kashmir independence and democracy, while also maintaining its Indian statehood.

The war between India and Pakistan was the second conflict between the two countries over the status of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The clash did not resolve this dispute, but it did engage the United States and the Soviet Union in ways that would have important implications for subsequent superpower involvement in the region. The dispute over this region originated in the process of decolonization in South Asia. When the British colony of India gained its independence in , it was partitioned into two separate entities: the secular nation of India and the predominantly Muslim nation of Pakistan. Pakistan was composed of two noncontiguous regions, East Pakistan and West Pakistan, separated by Indian territory. The state of Jammu and Kashmir, which had a predominantly Muslim population but a Hindu leader, shared borders with both India and West Pakistan. The argument over which nation would incorporate the state led to the first India-Pakistan War in —48 and ended with UN mediation.

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The following is a timeline of the Kashmir conflict , a territorial conflict between India , Pakistan and, to a lesser degree, China. India and Pakistan have been involved in four wars and several border skirmishes over the issue. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Timeline of the conflict over Kashmir and inside Kashmir. Archived from the original on 21 December Retrieved 5 December

These are the core obsessions that drive our newsroom—defining topics of seismic importance to the global economy. Our emails are made to shine in your inbox, with something fresh every morning, afternoon, and weekend. Those against this provision, Article , have argued that all three parts of the state—the Muslim-dominated Kashmir valley, the Hindu-majority Jammu, and Ladakh, which has considerable Buddhist presence—should not have laws independent of the Indian constitution. The Quit Kashmir movement against the maharaja is launched. August India gains independence from the British empire, Pakistan is created as a Muslim-majority country.

The Kashmir Socialist Party announced in September , after careful of Jammu and Kashmir split between India and Pakistan (Pakistan later gave a portion of 20 Bamzai, Culture and Political History of Kashmir, Volume 3: Modern.

Jammu and Kashmir

Under this bill Jammu and Kashmir will cease to be a state. Instead, the state will be converted to two union territories, that of Ladakh and Jammu and Kashmir. Article was the constitutional provision through which the special status that Kashmir has historically held under the Indian Constitution was guaranteed. Two months after independence, on 20 October , Kashmir was attacked by a large number of armed tribesmen, forcing Hari Singh, the ruler of Kashmir to write to Governor General, Lord Mountbatten, asking India to provide military aid.

Jammu and Kashmir came into being as a single political and geographical entity following the Treaty of Amritsar between the British Government and Maharaja Gulab Singh signed on March 16, Thus a new State comprising three distinct religions of Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh was formed with Maharaja Gulab Singh as its founder ruler. The feudal dispensation in the State, however, was too harsh for the people to live under and towards the end of a hundred years of this rule when their Indian brethren were fighting for independence from the British under the inspiring leadership of Mahatma Gandhi and Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru, the Kashmiris led by a towering personality, the Sher-I-Kashmir Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah, rose against the autocracy. However, the people laid their lives in the cause of freedom and to uphold the ideals of secularism, equality, democracy and brotherhood.

Он смотрел на девушку, понимая, что его поиски подошли к концу. Она вымыла голову и переоделась - быть может, считая, что так легче будет продать кольцо, - но в Нью-Йорк не улетела. Беккер с трудом сдерживал волнение. Его безумная поездка вот-вот закончится. Он посмотрел на ее пальцы, но не увидел никакого кольца и перевел взгляд на сумку.

The Kashmir conflict: How did it start?

Ей предстояло узнать это совсем. ГЛАВА 2 На высоте тридцать тысяч футов, над застывшим внизу океаном, Дэвид Беккер грустно смотрел в крохотный овальный иллюминатор самолета Лирджет-60. Ему сказали, что бортовой телефон вышел из строя, поэтому позвонить Сьюзан не удастся.

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Наконец Нуматака спросил: - Где ключ. - Вам нужно знать только одно: он будет найден. - Откуда такая уверенность. - Не я один его ищу. Американская разведка тоже идет по следу.

Article 370: A Constitutional History of Jammu and Kashmir

Спустились сумерки - самое романтическое время суток. Он подумал о Сьюзан.


  • Atilio M. 01.04.2021 at 05:02

    India's BJP-led government is hailing its decision to strip the state of Jammu and Kashmir of autonomy after seven decades, characterising it as the correction of a "historical blunder".

  • Rosemarie R. 02.04.2021 at 00:25

    Since , India and Pakistan have been locked in conflict over Kashmir, a majority-Muslim region in the northernmost part of India.

  • Cinderella B. 04.04.2021 at 10:10

    October Armed tribesmen from Pakistan infiltrate J&K, Hari Singh in favour of India (pdf), handing over control of defence, foreign affairs, China gains control of Aksai Chin region in J&K after a war with India.


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