 # Logic gates circuits and truth tables pdf

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## Module 2.1

### Logic gates and circuits

But, how this hardware and software perform such operations is a mysterious puzzle. In order to have a better understanding of such a complex issue, we must have to acquaint ourselves with the term Boolean Logic, developed by George Boole.

For a simple operation, computers utilize binary digits rather than digital digits. All the operations are carried out by the Basic Logic gates. This article discusses an overview of what are basic logic gates in digital electronics and their working. A logic gate is a basic building block of a digital circuit that has two inputs and one output. These gates are implemented using electronic switches like transistors, diodes. Logic gates are used in microprocessors, microcontrollers , embedded system applications, and in electronic and electrical project circuits.

These logic gates with their logic gate symbols and truth tables are explained below. The truth table is used to show the logic gate function. All the logic gates have two inputs except the NOT gate, which has only one input. When drawing a truth table, the binary values 0 and 1 are used. Every possible combination depends on the number of inputs. The basic logic gates are used to perform fundamental logical functions.

These are the basic building blocks in the digital ICs integrated circuits. Most of the logic gates use two binary inputs and generates a single output like 1 or 0. In some electronic circuits, few logic gates are used whereas in some other circuits, microprocessors include millions of logic gates.

The implementation of Logic gates can be done through diodes, transistors, relays, molecules, and optics otherwise different mechanical elements. Because of this reason, basic logic gates are used like electronic circuits. We all know the decimal numbers which we utilize in everyday calculations like 0 to 9. This kind of number system includes the base In the same way, binary numbers like 0 and 1 can be utilized to signify decimal numbers wherever the base of the binary numbers is 2.

The significance of using binary numbers here is to signify the switching position otherwise voltage position of a digital component. Therefore, Boolean algebra was started. After that, each logic gate is discussed separately this contains the logic of the gate, truth table, and its typical symbol. The output of this gate is true only when all the inputs are true. The symbol and truth table of an AND gate with two inputs is shown below.

The output of the OR gate is true only when one or more inputs are true. The symbol and truth table of an OR gate with two inputs is shown below. The NOT gate is a digital logic gate with one input and one output that operates an inverter operation of the input. The output of the NOT gate is the reverse of the input. When the input of the NOT gate is true then the output will be false and vice versa.

The symbol and truth table of a NOT gate with one input is shown below. If the input of the NAND gate high, then the output of the gate will be low. The symbol and truth table of the NAND gate with two inputs is shown below. The symbol and truth table of the NOR gate with the truth table is shown below. The Exclusive-OR gate is a digital logic gate with two inputs and one output. The short form of this gate is Ex-OR. It performs based on the operation of the OR gate.

If any one of the inputs of this gate is high, then the output of the EX-OR gate will be high. The symbol and truth table of the EX-OR are shown below. The Exclusive-NOR gate is a digital logic gate with two inputs and one output. The short form of this gate is Ex-NOR. It performs based on the operation of the NOR gate. But, if any one of the inputs is high but not both , then the output will be low. The applications of logic gates are mainly determined based upon their truth table, i.

The basic logic gates are used in many circuits like a push-button lock, light-activated burglar alarm , safety thermostat, an automatic watering system, etc. Gate circuit can be expressed using a common method is known as a truth table. This table includes all the input logic state combinations either high 1 or low 0 for every input terminal of the logic gate through the equivalent output logic level like high or low. The NOT logic gate circuit is shown above and its truth table is extremely easy indeed.

The truth tables of logic gates are very complex but larger than the NOT gate. The truth table of each gate must include many rows like there are possibilities for exclusive combinations for inputs. Therefore, it includes four rows for the equivalent truth table. Therefore, a truth table including 8 rows is required. Mathematically, the required number of rows in the truth table is equivalent to 2 increased to the power of the no.

A logic gate is a special type of amplifier circuit that is mainly designed for input as well as output logic level voltages. Logic gate circuits are most frequently symbolized with a schematic diagram through their own exclusive symbols Instead of their essential resistors and transistors. Just like with Op-Amps operational amplifiers , the connections of power supply to logic gates are frequently misplaced in schematic diagrams for the benefit of simplicity.

It includes the probable input logic level combinations through their particular output logic levels. The logic function of the NAND gate is. The logic function of NOR gate is. This logic gate can be defined as the gate that gives high output once any input of this is high. If both the inputs of this gate are high then the output will be low. Universal gates like NAND gate and NOR gate can be implemented through any boolean expression without using any other type of logic gate.

And, they can also be used for designing any basic logic gate. Additionally, these are extensively utilized in integrated circuits as they are simple as well as cost-effective to make. The basic logic gates design using universal gates are discussed below.

The basic logic gates can be designed with the help of universal gates. It uses an error, a bit of test otherwise you can utilize Boolean logic for attaining these through the logic gates equations for a NAND gate as well as a NOR gate. Here, Boolean logic is used to solve the output you require.

It takes some time but it is needed to perform this to obtain a hang of Boolean logic as well as basic logic gates. You share the two inputs with three gates. The output of the first NAND is the second input to the other two. This type of connection is a bit difficult because the two inputs can be shared with three logic gates. The first NOR gate output is the next input to the remaining two gates.

The applications of basic logic gates are so many however they mostly depend on their truth tables otherwise form of operations.

The main advantage of basic logic gates is, these can be used in a different combination circuit. In addition, there is no boundary to the number of logic gates that can be utilized in a single electronic device. But, it can be limited because of the specified physical gap within the device. In digital ICs integrated circuits we will discover a collection of the logic gate region unit.

By using mixtures of basic logic gates, advanced operations are often performed. Arrays of the logic gate area unit are found in digital integrated circuits ICs. As IC technology advances, the desired physical volume for every individual gate decreases, and digital devices of an equivalent or smaller size become capable of acting with more complicated operations at ever-increasing speeds.

By using these gates we can create any logic gate by combining them. These gates have a particular property with which they can create any logical Boolean expression if designed in a proper way. Furthermore, for any queries regarding this article, or electronics projects, please give your feedback by commenting in the comment section below.

What are Basic Logic Gates? Share This Post: Facebook. What is a Wave Analyzer and Its Working. What is Admittance : Units and Its Equation. ## Seven Basic Logic Gates

The AND gate is a basic digital logic gate that implements logical conjunction - it behaves according to the truth table to the right. The function can be extended to any number of inputs. Additional inputs can be added as needed. For more information see Logic Gate Symbols. The digital inputs a and b cause the output F to have the same result as the AND function. AND gates are available in IC packages. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Logic gates are the basic building blocks of any digital system. It is an electronic circuit having one or more than one input and only one output. The relationship between the input and the output is based on a certain logic. A circuit which performs an AND operation is shown in figure. A circuit which performs an OR operation is shown in figure. It can be used in the half adder, full adder and subtractor. XNOR gate is a special type of gate. ### Module 2.1

But, how this hardware and software perform such operations is a mysterious puzzle. In order to have a better understanding of such a complex issue, we must have to acquaint ourselves with the term Boolean Logic, developed by George Boole. For a simple operation, computers utilize binary digits rather than digital digits.

The Web This site. Each logic family is designed so that gates and other logic ICs within that family and other related families can be easily combined, and built into larger logic circuits to carry out complex functions with the minimum of additional components. If something is not 1 it must be 0, if it is not on, it must be off. A logic gate is a small transistor circuit, basically a type of amplifier, which is implemented in different forms within an integrated circuit. Each type of gate has one or more most often two inputs and one output. In designing digital circuits, the designer often begins with a truth table describing what the circuit should do.

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