forward and reverse biasing of pn junction diode pdf

Forward and reverse biasing of pn junction diode pdf

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PN Junction Diode Characteristics – Explained in Detail with Graphs

Chapter 3 - Diodes and Rectifiers

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Since a junction forms between a P type and N type material it is called as P-N junction. One terminal of p-n junction diode is Anode and other is cathode. If the applied potential difference is more than the potential barrier, some holes and free electrons enter the depletion region.

PN Junction Diode Characteristics – Explained in Detail with Graphs

At thermal equilibrium there are no external inputs such as light or applied voltage. The currents balance each other out so there is no net current within the device. Under steady state there are external inputs such as light or applied voltage, but the conditions do not change with time. Devices typically operate in steady state and are either in forward or reverse bias. If the applied voltage changes rapidly, there will be a short delay before the solar cell responds. As solar cells are not used for high speed operation there are few extra transient effects that need to be taken into account. Forward bias refers to the application of voltage across the device such that the electric field at the junction is reduced.

Chapter 3 - Diodes and Rectifiers

A p—n junction is a boundary or interface between two types of semiconductor materials , p-type and n-type , inside a single crystal of semiconductor. The "p" positive side contains an excess of holes , while the "n" negative side contains an excess of electrons in the outer shells of the electrically neutral atoms there. This allows electrical current to pass through the junction only in one direction. The p-n junction is created by doping , for example by ion implantation , diffusion of dopants , or by epitaxy growing a layer of crystal doped with one type of dopant on top of a layer of crystal doped with another type of dopant. If two separate pieces of material were used, this would introduce a grain boundary between the semiconductors that would severely inhibit its utility by scattering the electrons and holes. For example, a common type of transistor , the bipolar junction transistor , consists of two p—n junctions in series, in the form n—p—n or p—n—p; while a diode can be made from a single p-n junction. A Schottky junction is a special case of a p—n junction, where metal serves the role of the n-type semiconductor.


1. Zero Bias – No external voltage potential is applied to the PN junction diode. · 2. Reverse Bias · 3. Forward Bias.


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One of the major difference between the forward and the reverse biasing is that in forward biasing the positive terminal of the battery is connected to the p-type semiconductor material and the negative terminal is connected to the n-type semiconductor material. Whereas in reverse bias the n-type material is connected to the positive terminal of the supply and the p-type material is connected to the negative terminal of the battery. The forward and reverse biasing is differentiated below in the comparison chart.

A diode is an electrical device allowing current to move through it in one direction with far greater ease than in the other. The most common kind of diode in modern circuit design is the semiconductor diode, although other diode technologies exist. Semiconductor diodes are symbolized in schematic diagrams such as the figure below. When placed in a simple battery-lamp circuit, the diode will either allow or prevent current through the lamp, depending on the polarity of the applied voltage.

This understanding will lay a better foundation for exploring further into different aspects of semiconductor electronics. PN junction is a significant building block and it is one among the indispensable structures offered by the semiconductor technology in electronics. The exciting property of semiconductor diode is facilitating the electrons to flow exclusively in one direction across it; as a result it acts as a rectifier of Alternating Current. The indispensable operation in semiconductor diode is the basis for understanding of all the semiconductor diodes.

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Since the day my mother surprised me with the first home computer for Christmas back in, well, let's just say a long time ago, I've been intrigued by the technology. Anyway, at the time, I was the envy of every fellow geek, nerd, and teacher at my school.

Introduction to Diodes And Rectifiers

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