high and low level programming languages pdf

High and low level programming languages pdf

File Name: high and low level programming languages .zip
Size: 18024Kb
Published: 07.04.2021

Low-level language

Navigation menu

GCSE Computer Science

A high-level language is a programming language intended to streamline computer programming. High-level source code consists of easy-to-read structures that are later translated into a low-level language, which can only be perceived and run by a specific CPU. A high-level language is abstracted further away from the computer itself, and focuses more on programming logic rather than on basic hardware elements like memory address and register usage.

Low-level language

A low-level programming language is a programming language that provides little or no abstraction from a computer's instruction set architecture —commands or functions in the language map closely to processor instructions.

Generally, this refers to either machine code or assembly language. Because of the low hence the word abstraction between the language and machine language, low-level languages are sometimes described as being "close to the hardware".

Programs written in low-level languages tend to be relatively non-portable , due to being optimized for a certain type of system architecture. Low-level languages can convert to machine code without a compiler or interpreter — second-generation programming languages use a simpler processor called an assembler — and the resulting code runs directly on the processor. A program written in a low-level language can be made to run very quickly, with a small memory footprint.

An equivalent program in a high-level language can be less efficient and use more memory. Low-level languages are simple, but considered difficult to use, due to numerous technical details that the programmer must remember. By comparison, a high-level programming language isolates execution semantics of a computer architecture from the specification of the program, which simplifies development. Machine code is the only language a computer can process directly without a previous transformation.

Currently, programmers almost never write programs directly in machine code, because it requires attention to numerous details that a high-level language handles automatically. Furthermore, it requires memorizing or looking up numerical codes for every instruction, and is extremely difficult to modify. True machine code is a stream of raw, usually binary , data.

A programmer coding in "machine code" normally codes instructions and data in a more readable form such as decimal , octal , or hexadecimal which is translated to internal format by a program called a loader or toggled into the computer's memory from a front panel.

Although few programs are written in machine language, programmers often become adept at reading it through working with core dumps or debugging from the front panel. Example: A function in hexadecimal representation of bit x86 machine code to calculate the n th Fibonacci number :. Second-generation languages provide one abstraction level on top of the machine code.

Typically, one machine instruction is represented as one line of assembly code. Assemblers produce object files that can link with other object files or be loaded on their own. Most assemblers provide macros to generate common sequences of instructions. In this code example, hardware features of the x processor its registers are named and manipulated directly. Note that in this assembly language, there is no concept of returning a value. The result having been stored in the EAX register, the RET command simply moves code processing to the code location stored on the stack usually the instruction immediately after the one that called this function and it is up to the author of the calling code to know that this function stores its result in EAX and to retrieve it from there.

This code is very similar in structure to the assembly language example but there are significant differences in terms of abstraction:. These abstractions make the C code compilable without modification on any architecture for which a C compiler has been written.

The x86 assembly language code is specific to the x86 architecture. One method for this is Inline assembly , in which assembly code is embedded in a high-level language that supports this feature. Some of these languages also allow architecture-dependent compiler optimization directives to adjust the way a compiler uses the target processor architecture.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This article possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. March Learn how and when to remove this template message.

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.

December Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution. Penguin Books. Types of programming languages. First Second Third Fourth Fifth. Non-English-based Visual.

Assembly language Comparison of assemblers Disassembler Instruction set Low-level programming language Machine code Microassembler x86 assembly language. Categories : Low-level programming languages Programming language classification. Hidden categories: Articles that may contain original research from March All articles that may contain original research Articles needing additional references from July All articles needing additional references Wikipedia articles in need of updating from December All Wikipedia articles in need of updating Articles with multiple maintenance issues.

Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version.

Navigation menu

Machine Language Guide Basic Program The basic template of a machine language program is shown below. Assembly language is almost certainly the most difficult kind of computer programming, but keep in mind that we're speaking in relative terms here. Machine language vs. The Compilation System. The main difference between machine and assembly language is Machine languages are platform-dependent, and their features vary accordingly.

Scope of Appointment Form Medication Form. Late December Early December November Late October Early October

GCSE Computer Science

In computer science , a high-level programming language is a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer. In contrast to low-level programming languages , it may use natural language elements , be easier to use, or may automate or even hide entirely significant areas of computing systems e. The amount of abstraction provided defines how "high-level" a programming language is. In the s, high-level programming languages using a compiler were commonly called autocodes. The first significantly widespread high-level language was Fortran , a machine-independent development of IBM's earlier Autocode systems.

A programming language defines a set of instructions that are compiled together to perform a specific task by the CPU Central Processing Unit. Each programming language contains a unique set of keywords and syntax, which are used to create a set of instructions. Thousands of programming languages have been developed till now, but each language has its specific purpose. These languages vary in the level of abstraction they provide from the hardware. Some programming languages provide less or no abstraction while some provide higher abstraction.

Differences between Low-level and High-level Languages:. Upload to Fundamentals of 3. Learn It: What are the different levels of Programming Languages? A programming language - Is a formal language, which comprises a set of instructions that produce various kinds of output. Programming languages are used in computer programming to implement specific algorithms.

High and Low Level Languages

To browse Academia. Skip to main content.

Table of Contents

Хейл должен был умереть - за страну… и честь. Агентство не может позволить себе еще одного скандала. Стратмору нужен был козел отпущения. Кроме всего прочего, Хейл был настоящим ходячим несчастьем, готовым свалиться на голову в любую минуту. Из задумчивости Стратмора вывел звонок мобильного телефона, едва слышный в завывании сирен и свисте пара. Не останавливаясь, он отстегнул телефон от брючного ремня.

Мы ищем различие, выражаемое простым числом. Через несколько секунд всем стало ясно, что эта затея бессмысленна. Числа были огромными, в ряде случаев не совпадали единицы измерения. - Это все равно что вычитать апельсины из яблок, - сказал Джабба.  - Гамма-лучи против электромагнитной пульсации. Распадающиеся материалы и нераспадающиеся.

0 comments

Leave a reply