File Name: vrooms expectancy theory advantages and disadvantages .zip
First developed by Yale School of Management professor Victor Vroom in , the expectancy theory of motivation attempts to explain what keeps employees working. Its underlying principle is that employees perform in work situations because they expect to receive a direct reward, a factor called expectancy. Their performance is tied to both the degree to which they think they'll be rewarded, which is a factor called instrumentality, and the degree to which they want the reward, which is called valance. Understanding this theory is key in small businesses, many of which frequently run lean and, as such, could greatly benefit from having a well-motivated and highly productive workforce. The model underlying the expectancy theory states that Motivation is equal to Expectancy multiplied by Instrumentality multiplied by Valance.
The Expectancy Theory of Motivation attempts to explain why people behave the way they do. Do you show up at the office early, work hard, and stay late. Why do you behave this way? Expectancy Theory basically states that a person behaves the way they do because they are motivated to select that behavior ahead of others because of what they expect the result of that behavior to be. We can then use this information as an input for creating motivated employees. Expectancy Theory of Motivation was developed by Victor H.
This means people are increasingly more motivated the stronger they believe that their current actions will result in their desired goal. The expectancy theory of motivation is traditionally a management principle, but it also has many applications outside of the workplace. For example, if you can better understand the expectancy theory, you can not only motivate those around you, but you can better understand your personal expectations in an attempt to self-motivate. In this article, we discuss how the expectancy theory works and how to use it. Many people believe that if they put in a specific amount of effort it will result in a specific reward.
The Expectancy Theory of Motivation is best described as a process theory. With research pioneered by Edward C. Tolman and continued by Victor H. Vroom, Expectancy Theory provides an explanation of why individuals choose one behavioral option over others. The idea with this theory is that people are motivated to do something because they think their actions will lead to their desired outcome Redmond, In other words, it can help explain why a person performs at a particular level.
Victor H. Vroom, Professor Emeritus of Management at Yale University, developed a theory in about management and the drivers behind employee behavior as it pertains to motivation. Called expectancy theory, his work focused on explaining choices individuals made at work concerning their ability, leadership and the effectiveness of their decision making. Vroom has several published works on management and organizational behavior that have been widely considered breakthroughs in this field. Vroom's expectancy theory of motivation concerns the process of individuals choosing one way to behave over another. It says that if people think that putting in effort leads to good performance and that good performance brings desirable rewards that satisfy one or more of their important needs, then they will be motivated to make the effort. Vroom explains his theory using three variables: valence, expectancy and instrumentality.
Vroom's expectancy theory separates effort, performance and outcomes, while Maslow and Herzberg focus on the relationship between internal needs and the resulting effort expended to fulfil them. Vroom's expectancy theory assumes that behaviour results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximise pleasure and to minimise pain. Expectancy is the idea that increasing the amount of effort will increase performance if I work harder then I will perform better. Instrumentality is the idea that i f you perform better, then the outcome will be achieved If I perform well, there I will achieve the desired outcome. Valence is the perceived value the employee puts on the outcome. For the valence to be positive, the person must prefer attaining the outcome than not attaining it. If someone is mainly motivated by money, he or she might not value offers of additional time off.
One of the advantages of expectancy theory, if applied well, is that employees willingly and happily participate in work projects because management has planned.
Expectancy model was developed by Victor Vroom in The theory is based on the simple equation :. As shown in the figure above the model is built around the concepts of valence, instrumentality and expectancy. Therefore this model is referred to as VIE theory.
Whereas Maslow and Herzberg look at the relationship between internal needs and the resulting effort expended to fulfil them, Vroom's expectancy theory separates effort which arises from motivation , performance, and outcomes. Vroom's expectancy theory assumes that behavior results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximize pleasure and to minimize pain. Vroom realized that an employee's performance is based on individual factors such as personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities. He stated that effort, performance and motivation are linked in a person's motivation. He uses the variables Expectancy, Instrumentality and Valence to account for this.
Together with Edward Lawler and Lyman Porter, Victor Vroom suggested that the relationship between people's behavior at work and their goals was not as simple as was first imagined by other scientists. Vroom realized that an employee's performance is based on individuals factors such as personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities. The theory suggests that although individuals may have different sets of goals, they can be motivated if they believe that:.
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