advantages and disadvantages of wholly owned subsidiaries pdf

Advantages and disadvantages of wholly owned subsidiaries pdf

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Wholly-owned Subsidiaries, Greenfield Investments, Mergers & Acquisitions

A wholly owned subsidiary is a company whose entire stock is held by another company, called the parent company.

In this section, we will explore the traditional international-expansion entry modes. Beyond importing, international expansion is achieved through exporting, licensing arrangements, partnering and strategic alliances An international entry mode involving a contractual agreement between two or more enterprises stipulating that the involved parties will cooperate in a certain way for a certain time to achieve a common purpose. These modes of entering international markets and their characteristics are shown in Table 8.

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Foreign market entry modes are the ways in which a company can expand its services into a non-domestic market. There are two major types of market entry modes: equity and non-equity. The non-equity modes category includes export and contractual agreements. Exporting is the process of selling of goods and services produced in one country to other countries.

Passive exports represent the treating and filling overseas orders like domestic orders. Indirect export is the process of exporting through domestically based export intermediaries. The exporter has no control over its products in the foreign market. Companies that seriously consider international markets as a crucial part of their success would likely consider direct exporting as the market entry tool. Indirect exporting is preferred by companies who would want to avoid financial risk as a threat to their other goals.

An international licensing agreement allows foreign firms, either exclusively or non-exclusively to manufacture a proprietor's product for a fixed term in a specific market. In this foreign market entry mode, a licensor in the home country makes limited rights or resources available to the licensee in the host country. The rights or resources may include patents, trademarks, managerial skills, technology, and others that can make it possible for the licensee to manufacture and sell in the host country a similar product to the one the licensor has already been producing and selling in the home country without requiring the licensor to open a new operation overseas.

The licensor earnings usually take forms of one time payments, technical fees and royalty payments usually calculated as a percentage of sales. As in this mode of entry the transference of knowledge between the parental company and the licensee is strongly present, the decision of making an international license agreement depend on the respect the host government show for intellectual property and on the ability of the licensor to choose the right partners and avoid them to compete in each other market.

Licensing is a relatively flexible work agreement that can be customized to fit the needs and interests of both, licensor and licensee. Following are the main advantages and reasons to use an international licensing for expanding internationally:. On the other hand, international licensing is a foreign market entry mode that presents some disadvantages and reasons why companies should not use it as:. The franchising system can be defined as: "A system in which semi-independent business owners franchisees pay fees and royalties to a parent company franchiser in return for the right to become identified with its trademark, to sell its products or services, and often to use its business format and system.

Compared to licensing, franchising agreements tends to be longer and the franchisor offers a broader package of rights and resources which usually includes: equipment, managerial systems, operation manual, initial trainings, site approval and all the support necessary for the franchisee to run its business in the same way it is done by the franchisor.

In addition to that, while a licensing agreement involves things such as intellectual property, trade secrets and others while in franchising it is limited to trademarks and operating know-how of the business. Disadvantages of franchising to the franchisor: [15].

A turnkey project refers to a project when clients pay contractors to design and construct new facilities and train personnel. A turnkey project is a way for a foreign company to export its process and technology to other countries by building a plant in that country. Industrial companies that specialize in complex production technologies normally use turnkey projects as an entry strategy. One of the major advantages of turnkey projects is the possibility for a company to establish a plant and earn profits in a foreign country especially in which foreign direct investment opportunities are limited and lack of expertise in a specific area exists.

Potential disadvantages of a turnkey project for a company include risk of revealing companies secrets to rivals, and takeover of their plant by the host country. Entering a market with a turnkey project CAN prove that a company has no long-term interest in the country which can become a disadvantage if the country proves to be the main market for the output of the exported process.

A wholly owned subsidiary includes two types of strategies: Greenfield investment and Acquisitions. Greenfield investment and acquisition include both advantages and disadvantages. To decide which entry modes to use is depending on situations. Greenfield investment is the establishment of a new wholly owned subsidiary. It is often complex and potentially costly, but it is able to provide full control to the firm and has the most potential to provide above average return. Greenfield investment is high risk due to the costs of establishing a new business in a new country.

This entry strategy takes much more time due to the need of establishing new operations, distribution networks, and the necessity to learn and implement appropriate marketing strategies to compete with rivals in a new market. Acquisition has become a popular mode of entering foreign markets mainly due to its quick access [24] Acquisition strategy offers the fastest, and the largest, initial international expansion of any of the alternative.

Acquisition has been increasing because it is a way to achieve greater market power. The market share usually is affected by market power. Therefore, many multinational corporations apply acquisitions to achieve their greater market power, which require buying a competitor, a supplier, a distributor, or a business in highly related industry to allow exercise of a core competency and capture competitive advantage in the market.

Acquisition is lower risk than Greenfield investment because of the outcomes of an acquisition can be estimated more easily and accurately. However, some industries benefit more from globalization than do others, and some nations have a comparative advantage over other nations in certain industries. To create a successful global strategy, managers first must understand the nature of global industries and the dynamics of global competition, international strategy i.

Basically there are three key differences between them. Firstly, it relates to the degree of involvement and coordination from the Centre. Moreover, the difference relates to the degree of product standardization and responsiveness to local business environment.

The last is that difference has to do with strategy integration and competitive moves. Other benefits include political connections and distribution channel access that may depend on relationships. The key issues to consider in a joint venture are ownership, control, length of agreement, pricing, technology transfer, local firm capabilities and resources, and government intentions.

Potential problems include: [31]. Joint ventures have conflicting pressures to cooperate and compete: [32].

Some advantages of a strategic alliance include: [35]. In terms on risk reduction, in strategic alliances no one firm bears the full risk, and cost of, a joint activity. This is also advantageous to smaller organizations which are more affected by risky activities. Some strategic alliances involve many firms that are in fierce competition outside the specific scope of the alliance. This creates the risk that one or both partners will try to use the alliance to create an advantage over the other.

The benefits of this alliance may cause unbalance between the parties, there are several factors that may cause this asymmetry: [38]. Some more like compatibility between operating policies Lilley and Willianms, , trust and commitment Lilley and Willianms, , compatible management styles Geringer and Michael, , mutual dependency Lilley and Willianms, , communications barriers Lilley and Willianms, and avoid anchor partners Geringer and Michael, are also important for partner selection but less important than the first four.

Political issues will be faced mostly by the companies who want to enter a country that with unsustainable political environment Parboteeah and Cullen, A political decisions will affect the business environment in a country and affect the profitability of the business in the country Click, Organizations with investments in such opaque countries as Zimbabwe, Myanmar, and Vietnam have long-term experiences about how the political risk affects their business behaviors Harvard Business Review, The politically jailing of Mikhail Khodorkovsky, the business giant, in Russia Wade, ; 2.

The "Open-door" policy of China Deng, ; 3. The Ukraine disputed elections resulting in the uncertain president recent years Harvard Business Review, ; 4. The corrupt legal system in many countries, such as Russia Samara, The following introductions were based on the statement of Hollensen: [39]. Besides these three rules, managers have their own ways to select entry modes.

If the company could not generate a mature market research, the manager tend to choose the entry modes most suitable for the industry or make decisions by intuition.

Foreign Direct Investment FDI is an important factor for a country's economic growth especially in its impacts on transmission of technology and developments in management and marketing strategies. FDI takes place when a firm acquires ownership control of a production unit in a foreign country. According to the content there are basically three forms of FDI: establishing new branch, acquiring control share of an existing firm, and participating jointly in a domestic firm.

As Albanian economy has changed from a centrally planned to a market oriented one, FDI is seen as an important component of the transition process toward a market-led economic system, since it contributes to the development of a country through multiple channels Kukeli, et al. In their study, a limited number of successful mobile networks entry cases have been selected for deep investigation of entry models in Albania, to find out the most important and efficient determinants of foreign mobile networks entry into Albania's telecommunication market in the future as well.

It provides a successful Albanian business experience for the newcomers in mobile telecommunications industry. With its developing market economy, Albania offers many opportunities for investors-property as labour costs are low, the young and educated population is ready to work, and tariffs and other legal restrictions are low in many cases and are being eliminated in some others Albinvest, Location of Albania in itself offers a notable trade potential, especially with EU markets, since it shares borders with Greece and Italy.

In the last years Albania has entered the free trade agreements with Balkan Countries creating the opportunity for trade throughout the region. As Albanian economy tends to grow, the prospects and opportunities of multinational enterprises MNEs to invest in Albania for a long-term period has increased also.

However, after the transition to democracy since , the country has taken a long way in terms of economic, political and social life Ministry of Economy , p. Demirel finds all of these changes to form the strengths of Albania in terms of FDI. In his study Demirel emphasizes that Albania has one of the most friendly investment environments in the region of the South- Eastern European Countries SEECs with her impressive economic performance in the last decade, liberal economic legislation, rapid privatisation process and country specific advantages.

By taking into account all of these factors, the aim of this study is to offer a new perspective by the case studies of foreign telecommunications companies, which form the majority of MNEs in this field, by finding the most significant determinants before entering into Albania, with a successful entry strategy and crucial consideration of FDI in Albania. It is crucially important to find the determinants and factors that affect multinational firms when deciding on their entry modes, in order to successfully compete in the Albanian mobile telecoms industry.

There are four operators in these industries; two of the leading firms expand rapidly in Albania by utilizing successful and aggressive entry strategies, and the other ones are new entries in Albanian market. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject. Please help improve the article by providing more context for the reader. July Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Praveen Parboteeah, John B. Australia: South-Western Cengage Learning. Zimmerer, T. Essentials of global marketing. Harlow, Essex, England: Pearson Education.

Hollensen, S. Categories : Export International trade. Hidden categories: Wikipedia articles needing context from July All Wikipedia articles needing context Wikipedia introduction cleanup from July All pages needing cleanup.

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What are the main issues to bear in mind when negotiating a licensing agreement? What rights does copyright provide? What types of works are protected by copyright? Why is it important to my business? Related news. What are the advantages and disadvantages of participating in a joint venture with another company? Joint ventures Joint ventures can prove to be a useful and necessary way to enter new markets.

Wholly-owned Subsidiaries, Greenfield Investments, Mergers & Acquisitions

If your growth strategy involves tapping into new markets, or you're looking for access to cheaper labor and resources, you might consider opening a subsidiary based overseas. Establishing an overseas subsidiary provides you with several benefits, but it also presents some drawbacks. Unlike a franchise, an affiliate or a branch of an existing business, a subsidiary is a business entity that has stock shares controlled by another company , which is typically referred to as a parent company or a holding company.

Hence, forming a joint venture with another company is seen as a plausible solution. It is not like a partnership agreement because this has a definite end to it as it focuses on a single project or undertaking. It does pose a great sense of benefit for both companies, but it also comes with its share of side effects as well. That is what we are hoping to bring to light in this article.

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Advantages of a Joint Venture

Для панков? - переспросил бармен, странно посмотрев на Беккера. - Да. Есть ли в Севилье такое место, где тусуются панки. - No lo se, senor. He знаю. Но уж определенно не здесь! - Он улыбнулся.

Все замерли в изумлении. Возможные последствия полученного известия словно пулей пронзили Джаббу. Казалось, тучный шеф отдела обеспечения системной безопасности вот-вот рухнет на пол. - Мертв. Но это значит… значит… что мы не можем… - Это значит, что нужен другой план действий.  - Фонтейн, как обычно, говорил спокойно и деловито.

 - На это уйдет полчаса. К тому времени все уже рухнет. Джабба открыл рот, готовый что-то сказать, но тут его буквально парализовал душераздирающий крик. Все повернули головы к Сьюзан Флетчер, которая выпрямилась и поднялась со стула. Лицо ее побелело, глаза не отрываясь смотрели на застывший кадр, демонстрировавший неподвижное тело Дэвида Беккера, залитое кровью, брошенное на пол мини-автобуса.


  • Barry C. 12.04.2021 at 04:46

    What is the best way to enter a new market?

  • Gacrigepims1968 12.04.2021 at 05:41

    Literature Review 2.

  • Flaminia H. 14.04.2021 at 04:13

    Regardless of whether a subsidiary is wholly owned or partially owned, a parent company has a strong say in how that subsidiary operates. Advantage: Parent.


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