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Doherty, Michael F. Last reviewed: October Any of several processes by which liquid mixtures containing azeotropes may be separated into their pure components with the aid of an additional substance called the entrainer, the solvent, or the mass separating agent to facilitate the distillation. Distillation is a separation technique that exploits the fact that when a liquid is partially vaporized the compositions of the two phases are different. By separating the phases, and repeating the procedure, it is often possible to separate the original mixture completely. However, many mixtures exhibit special states, known as azeotropes, at which the composition, temperature, and pressure of the liquid phase become equal to those of the vapor phase. Thus, further separation by conventional distillation is no longer possible.
The key difference between azeotropic and extractive distillation is that in azeotropic distillation, the formation of an azeotrope is required to separate the components of a mixture whereas, in extractive distillation, no azeotrope formation takes place. Distillation is the process of purifying a liquid by a process of heating and cooling. In azeotropic distillation, an azeotrope is formed prior to the separation of components from a mixture. An azeotrope is a mixture of components having a constant boiling point. In extractive distillation process, there is no need to form an azeotrope.
The separation of non-ideal mixtures using distillation can be an extremely complex process and there continues to be a need to further improve these techniques. A new method which combines extractive heterogeneous-azeotropic distillation EHAD and hydrophilic pervaporation HPV for the separation of non-ideal ternary mixtures is demonstrated. This improved distillation method combines the benefits of heterogeneous-azeotropic and extractive distillations in one column but no added materials are needed as is usually the case with pervaporation. There is not currently an established treatment strategy for the separation of the second mixtures in the literature. These separation processes were rigorously modelled and optimized using a professional flowsheet. The objective functions were total cost and energy consumption and heat integration was also investigated. The verification of the process modelling was carried out using laboratory-scale measurements.
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Azeotropic and extractive distillations are techniques used in the field of chemistry and engineering. Major industries, especially pharmaceuticals, are making use of these techniques to further improve their research. Distillation is a very important process in separating certain components from the mixture and is typically based on the volatility of the components in the mixture of the boiling liquid.
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