File Name: rainwater harvesting and waste water recycling .zip
Rainwater harvesting RWH is the collection and storage of rain, rather than allowing it to run off. Rainwater is collected from a roof-like surface and redirected to a tank, cistern, deep pit well, shaft, or borehole , aquifer , or a reservoir with percolation. Dew and fog can also be collected with nets or other tools. Rainwater harvesting differs from stormwater harvesting as the runoff is collected from roofs, rather than creeks, drains, roads, or any other land surfaces. The harvested water can also be committed to longer-term storage or groundwater recharge. Rainwater harvesting is one of the simplest and oldest methods of self-supply of water for households, and residential and household-scale projects, usually financed by the user.
Water reclamation also called wastewater reuse is the process of converting wastewater into water that can be reused for other purposes. Reused water may also be directed toward fulfilling certain needs in residences e. This last option is called either "direct potable reuse" or "indirect potable" reuse, depending on the approach used. Reclaiming water for reuse applications instead of using freshwater supplies can be a water-saving measure. When used water is eventually discharged back into natural water sources, it can still have benefits to ecosystems , improving streamflow, nourishing plant life and recharging aquifers , as part of the natural water cycle. Wastewater reuse is a long-established practice used for irrigation, especially in arid countries.
Sadia Rahman, M. Biswas, S. Water is considered an everlasting free source that can be acquired naturally. Demand for processed supply water is growing higher due to an increasing population. Sustainable use of water could maintain a balance between its demand and supply. Rainwater harvesting RWH is the most traditional and sustainable method, which could be easily used for potable and nonpotable purposes both in residential and commercial buildings.
Water availability pressures, competing end-uses and sewers at capacity are all drivers for change in urban water management. Rainwater harvesting RWH and greywater reuse GWR systems constitute alternatives to reduce drinking water usage and in the case of RWH, reduce roof runoff entering sewers. Despite the increasing popularity of installations in commercial buildings, RWH and GWR technologies at a household scale have proved less popular, across a range of global contexts. For systems designed from the top-down, this is often due to the lack of a favourable cost-benefit where subsidies are unavailable , though few studies have focused on performing full capital and operational financial assessments, particularly in high water consumption households. A full capital and operational financial assessment was performed at a more detailed level for the most viable design using historic rainfall data. As an initial end-user-driven design exercise, these results are promising and constitute a starting point for facilitating such approaches to urban water management at the household scale.
This study assessed the performance of rainwater-harvesting systems installed for selected public utilities in the northern provinces of Vietnam where rainwater was collected, stored in stainless steel tanks, and treated with a complex filtration unit and Ultraviolet UV disinfection system full system. Most of the heavy metals detected were found below the standard limits. After treatment, all parameters met the drinking water standards.
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PDF | Over the past decade, approaches to improve urban water cycle harvesting and wastewater reuse to explore the reductions in rainwater tank demand.Reply
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