File Name: laboratory classification of hepatitis b infection into acute and chronic .zip
This test is not offered as a screening or confirmatory test for blood donor specimens. This test, by itself , is not useful during the "window period" of acute hepatitis B virus HBV infection ie, after disappearance of hepatitis B surface antigen and prior to appearance of hepatitis B surface antibody.
Hepatitis B virus HBV is endemic throughout the world. The infection is spread primarily through percutaneous contact with infected blood products eg, blood transfusion, sharing of needles by intravenous drug addicts. The virus is also found in various human body fluids, and it is known to be spread through oral and genital contacts.
HBV can be transmitted from mother to child during delivery through contact with blood and vaginal secretions, but it is not commonly transmitted transplacentally.
In acute infection, HBsAg usually disappears in 1 to 2 months after the onset of symptoms. Persistence of HBsAg for more than 6 months in duration indicates development of either a chronic carrier state or chronic HBV infection. Specimens with initially reactive screen results, but negative not confirmed by HBsAg confirmatory test results, are likely to contain cross-reactive antibodies from other infectious or immunologic disorders.
These unconfirmed HBsAg-reactive screening test results should be interpreted in conjunction with test results of other HBV serologic markers eg, hepatitis B surface antibody; hepatitis B core antibody, total and IgM. Repeat testing is recommended at a later date if clinically indicated. Positive hepatitis B surface antigen HBsAg test results should be reported by the health care provider to the State Department of Health, as required by law in some states. Individuals, especially neonates and children, who recently received hepatitis B vaccination may have transient positive HBsAg test results because of the large dose of HBsAg used in the vaccine relative to the individual's body mass.
Performance characteristics have not been established for the following specimen characteristics:. Antiviral Ther. Clin Liver Dis. J Clin Virol. LeFebre ML, U. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. World Health Organization; Accessed September 29, Available at www. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Testing and public health management of persons with chronic hepatitis B virus infection.
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RIS file. A laboratory diagnosis of hepatitis B HBV infection is dependent upon the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen in serum. The distinction between acute and chronic infection relies on the detection of other serological markers. Serum-based assays can now detect and quantify the viral DNA. These assays will have a role in therapeutic monitoring and the detection of HBV mutants. While new guidelines for vaccination have recently been published, some issues regarding revaccination and the management of people who cannot mount an adequate vaccine response are yet to be adequately resolved. This results in up to deaths annually.
recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature Serological and clinical patterns of acute or chronic HBV infections. Viral oligopeptides of amino acids are loaded on host cell MHC-class I and HDV RNA in liver and serum are available only in research laboratories
Common causes include hepatitis B and C viruses, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis NASH , alcohol-related liver disease, and autoimmune liver disease autoimmune hepatitis. Many patients have no history of acute hepatitis, and the first indication is discovery of asymptomatic aminotransferase elevations. Some patients present with cirrhosis or its complications eg, portal hypertension. Biopsy is sometimes necessary to confirm the diagnosis and to grade and stage the disease.
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue. Hepatitis A, B, and D are preventable with immunization. Worldwide in , hepatitis A occurred in about million people, chronic hepatitis B affected about million people and chronic hepatitis C about million people. Both drug-induced hepatitis and autoimmune hepatitis can present very similarly to acute viral hepatitis, with slight variations in symptoms depending on the cause.
This test is not offered as a screening or confirmatory test for blood donor specimens. This test, by itself , is not useful during the "window period" of acute hepatitis B virus HBV infection ie, after disappearance of hepatitis B surface antigen and prior to appearance of hepatitis B surface antibody. Hepatitis B virus HBV is endemic throughout the world.
However, acute infection and chronic infections are frequently asymptomatic in children. Surveillance for chronic hepatitis B cannot inform.Reply
Articles in the December issue discuss various health issues affecting school-aged children, including acne, eczema and growth disorders.Reply
Patient information: See related handout on hepatitis B , written by the authors of this article.Reply