File Name: ralph metzner hallucinogenic drugs and plant in psychotherapy and shamanism .zip
We believe that plant medicines are powerful allies for the global awakening, helping many people to expand their awareness, shed conditioning, address fears, process trauma, heal themselves, realise truth, and take action in the face of the ever-more rapidly approaching ecological crisis.
Researchers say Ayahuasca, found in the Peruvian rainforest, could be used for a variety of ailments. Erika Celeste Iquitos, Peru 23 March Ayahuasca in the treatment of Addictions. Physician, founder of Takiwasi Center. Also gives in-depth insight into the chemical and neurological reactions induced by Ayahuasca.
METHODS: archival studies of shamanic literature as well as field research in communities where shamans are actively functioning. RESULTS: the source of shaman-derived information is attributed to such discarnate entities and forces as spirits, ancestors, animal guides, and energetic fields. These agencies were contacted through ritualized drumming, dancing, lucid dreaming, the use of psychotropic plants, focused attention, and other technologies. Further, these data can make important contributions to cognitive neuroscience, social psychology, psychotherapy, and ecological psychology. Key-words: Shamans, shamanism, health care, phenomenology, psychology. The term shaman is a social construct that describes a person who attends to the psychological and spiritual needs of a community. The techniques that enable shamans of both genders to access information that is not ordinarily attainable are known as "shamanism.
The most potent are members of the genus Psilocybe , such as P. As a prodrug, psilocybin is quickly converted by the body to psilocin , which has mind-altering effects similar, in some aspects, to those of LSD , mescaline , and DMT. In general, the effects include euphoria , visual and mental hallucinations , changes in perception , a distorted sense of time , and spiritual experiences, and can also include possible adverse reactions such as nausea and panic attacks. Imagery found on prehistoric murals and rock paintings of modern-day Spain and Algeria suggests that human usage of psilocybin mushrooms predates recorded history. In Mesoamerica , the mushrooms had long been consumed in spiritual and divinatory ceremonies before Spanish chroniclers first documented their use in the 16th century. In , the Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann isolated the active principle psilocybin from the mushroom Psilocybe mexicana. Hofmann's employer Sandoz marketed and sold pure psilocybin to physicians and clinicians worldwide for use in psychedelic psychotherapy.
Research suggests that the clinical and therapeutic effects of psychedelics are related to their ability to induce a mystical-type experience. One particularly interesting feature of the psychedelic mystical experience is the entity encounter - people who take psychedelics sometimes describe meetings with seemingly autonomous entities which appear to possess intelligence and agency. While there has been little empirical research into psychedelic entity phenomena, qualitative studies and anecdotal reports suggest that entity encounters can have profound and lasting positive after-effects. Based on the existing data, this article argues that there is value in exploring the therapeutic potential of psychedelic entity encounters. Specifically, it proposes three possible ways that entity encounters might mediate the therapeutic effect of the psychedelic mystical experience. While psychedelic altered states are highly specific to particular compounds, and the range of subjective effects that people experience is wide, there are certain features of the psychedelic experience that occur for most people.
Abbott, Andrew. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Abramson, Harold A. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, New York: Josiah Macy Foundation, Alpert, Richard, and Sidney Cohen.
Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychoactive brew of two main components. As a sacrament, ayahuasca is still a central element of many healing ceremonies in the Amazon Basin and its ritual consumption has become common among the mestizo populations of South America. Ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of traditional medicine and cultural psychiatry.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Metzner Published Psychology, Medicine Journal of psychoactive drugs. Western psychotherapy and indigenous shamanic healing systems have both used psychoactive drugs or plants for healing and obtaining knowledge called "diagnosis" or "divination" respectively. While there are superficial similarities between psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy and shamanic healing with hallucinogenic plants, there are profound differences in the underlying worldview and conceptions of reality.
M y first psilocybin journey began around an altar in the middle of a second-story loft in a suburb of a small city on the Eastern Seaboard. On this adventure I would have a guide, a therapist who, like an unknown number of other therapists administering psychedelics in America today, must work underground because these drugs are illegal. Seated across the altar from me, Mary who asked that I use a nickname because of the work she does began by reciting, with her eyes closed, a long and elaborate prayer derived from various Native American traditions. The crowded altar also held a branch of sage and a stub of palo santo, a fragrant wood that some Indians in South America burn ceremonially, and the jet-black wing of a crow. The whole scene must sound ridiculously hokey, not to mention laced with cultural appropriation, yet the conviction Mary brought to the ceremony, together with the aromas of the burning plants and the spooky sound of the wing pulsing the air around my head — plus my own nervousness about the journey in store — cast a spell that allowed me to suspend my disbelief. But I think it was her manner, her sobriety and her evident compassion that made me feel sufficiently comfortable to entrust her with, well, my mind.