File Name: delivering quality service balancing customer perceptions and expectations .zip
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Excellence in customer service is the hallmark of success in service industries and among manufacturers of products that require reliable service. But what exactly is excellent service? It is the ability to deliver what you promise, say the authors, but first you must determine what you can promise. Building on seven years of research on service quality, they construct a model that, by balancing a customer's perceptions of the value of a particular service with the customer's need for that service, provides brilliant theoretical insight into customer expectations and service delivery.
Using the extended mice-quality model developed by Zeithaml, Berry, and Parasuraman Journal zyxwvuts of Marketing, 52, as a conceptual framework, five specific propositions implied by the model and by earlier studies contributing to its development were tested.
Such testing required a complex research design involving five service companies as well as samples of customers, contact employees, and managers from each company. The results have practical implications and suggest an agenda for future organizational research. A general tenet in marketing and business holds that high-quality goods and services are favored in the marketplace.
As a result of this evidence and a widespread belief in the tenet, companies have placed service quality at the top of a list of strate- gic constructs important in the next several years Uttal, Empirical research by PIMS Profit Impact of Marketing Strategies clearly shows the positive relationship between service quality and orga- nizational performance.
Moreover, Reichheld and Sasser offer convincing evidence that retaining customers through service quality raises profits through Human Resource Management, Fall , Vol. Unfortunately, while most American companies today are drowning in measurement, focus is on short-term financial performance, on pro- zyxwvu ductivity and efficiency-and not on long-term customer satisfaction and value.
To demonstrate fully the impact of service quality and cus- tomer satisfaction on organizational performance, other measures must be added to corporate report cards.
Trusting short-term operational and financial measures to chronicle the future success of a business is dangerous:. Ec- zyxw cles A central tenet of the Malcolm Baldrige Award is actions based on facts, data, and analysis, requiring companies to anchor strategies on measurable results that are broader than financial measures alone. Qual- ity measures that have evolved in the last 10 years, such as defect rates, six sigma, and cycle times, are part of the picture.
More critical are perceptual measures such as customer satisfaction and perceived service zyxwvu quality. The Baldrige criteria specify that the focus must be on the customer:. Most recently, Kaplan and Norton have called for a balanced scorecard of organizational performance, a set of measures that gives managers a more comprehensive view of the business than financial or operational measures alone.
This program has thus far produced a series of three studies. These orga- zy nizational gaps, which can impede delivery of services that customers perceive to be of high quality, are: Gap 1: Difference between customer expectations and management perceptions of customer expectations. Gap 2: Difference between management perceptions of customer ex- pectations and service quality specifications.
Gap 3: Difference between service quality specifications and the ser- vice actually delivered. Uom zyx Figure 1. Conceptual model of service quality. In this study SERVQUAL, a multiple-item instrument designed to measure service quality along five dimensions, was developed and tested: Tangibles: appearance of physical facilities, equipment, person- nel and communication materials.
Reliability: ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately. Responsiveness: willingness to help customers and provide prompt service. Empa thy: caring, individualized attention the firm provides its customers.
In the third study Zeithaml et al. Most of these constructs involved communication and control processes implemented in organizations to manage em- ployees as well as manage the consequences of these processes.
These zyxw constructs are organized by gap and defined in Table I. Figure 2 is an zyxw extended model of service quality, summarizing the various organiza- tional constructs and their relationships to the service quality gaps. The purpose of this article is to describe and discuss findings from the latest study in our research program, a large-scale empirical study of the rela- tionships implied in Figure 2. To accomplish this purpose, five specific propositionsimplied by the zyxwvutsr model and by earlier studies contributing to its development were tested.
Upward Communication UC : Extent to which top management seeks, stimulates, and facilitates the flow of information from employees at lower levels. Constructs Influencing Gap 2 zyxwvu zy Management Commitment to Service Quality MCSQ : Extent to which management views service quality as a key strategic goal and allocates ade- zyxwv quate resources to it.
Goal-Setting GS : Existence of a formal process for setting quality of service goals. Perceived Control PC : Extent to which employees perceive that they are in control of their jobs and that they can act flexibly. Role Conflict RC : Extent to which employees perceive that they cannot zyxwv satisfy all the demands of all the individuals internal and external cus- tomers they must serve.
Role Ambiguity RA :Extent to which employees are uncertain about what managers and supervisors expect from them and how to satisfy those expec- tations. Extended model of service quality. P,: The size of the Service Performance Gap Gap 3 is related: a negatively to extent of teamwork perceived by employees, b negatively to employee-job fit, c negatively to technology-job fit, d negatively to extent of perceived control experienced by employees, zy e negatively to extent to which behavioral control systems are used to supplement output control systems.
P,: The size of the Communication Gap Gap 4 is related: a negatively to extent of horizontal communication, and b positively to propensity to overpromise.
In developing and discussing the basic conceptual model of service quality Fig. I , Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry proposed that Gap 5, the customer-based measure, is a function of organizational gaps Gap Accordingly, the fifth proposition examined in this study was: zyxw P,: The size of the Service Quality Gap Gap 5 is positively related to the sizes of the provider gaps Gap The design also called for two different levels of analysis; one level wherein the units of analysis were individual respondents and another wherein the units of analysis were organizational entities, each comprising a group of respondents.
As discussed fully in Parasuraman, Berry, and Zeithaml , the complexity of the research design was dictated by the nature of the Gaps Model Fig. Therefore data zyx from customers are needed to measure Gaps 1 and 5, and data from organizational personnel contact employees and managers are needed to measure Gaps Two of the five propositions, P, and P,, were tested in this manner.
Like PI and P5, the remaining three propositions are also organiza- tion-level propositions. Because of this feature, these propositions can be tested by treating individual zyxwv respondents as units of analysis and using individual-level data. This approach avoids potential loss of information due to aggregation and permits larger sample sizes which facilitate more powerful testing of the propositions, particularly when the number of organizational units is small.
It is also an approach that is widely used in organizational behav- ior research. For these reasons, P,, P3, and P4 were tested with indi- vidual-level data from appropriate respondents who were pooled across organizational units.
Operationalization of Variables Table I1 summarizes the variables embedded in the five propositions. The other variables in Table I1 were measured using scales developed for this study. The specific procedures used to operationalize the study vari- ables are briefly described next.
The Murket- ing Infomation Gap Gap 1 was operationalized as the difference be- tween these two measures of expectations. Gap 5 scores along each of the 5 dimensions of service quality were com- puted by averaging perception-minus-expectation scores along items making up each dimension. An overall measure of Gap 5 was obtained by averaging perception-minus-expectation scores of customers across all 5 dimensions.
Provider Gaps 2, 3, and 4. Therefore company personnel managers and contact employees were deemed to be appropriate respondents for assessing these gaps. Re- spondents were asked to indicate their perceptions of the degree to which each gap existed in their organizations along the 5 service quality dimensions.
For each gap, ratings across the 5 dimensions were averaged and the average rating was subtracted from 7 to obtain a measure of the gap higher values of this measure represent bigger gaps. The instructions given to respondents and the scales used are included in Appendix I. Constructs Influencing Provider Gaps The two exceptions-levels of management LOM and technology-job fit TF1T -were measured through single-item zyx scales because the domains of these constructs were narrow enough to be captured by single items.
On the basis of extensive exploratory research, Zeithaml, et al. These variables, as well as relevant scales from the organizational behavior literature e. The final set of scale items is shown in Appendix The refinements made to the customer i. The changes made to the em- ployee and manager questionnaires are fully described in Parasuraman et al.
Three categories of questions were included in the employee and manager questionnaires: 1 items from the expectations section of SERVQUAL to provide part of the data used in computing Gap 1 ; 2 questions pertaining to the extent of Gaps ; and 3 questions to measure the organizational constructs hypothesized to influence Gaps zy Questions for the first two categories were included in both em- zy ployee and manager questionnaires.
However, not all questions under the third category were included in both questionnaires. This selective inclusion was prompted by two considerations. First, in terms of knowledge of and closeness to the potential causes of the gaps, the most appropriate re- spondents for assessing those causes were managers for Gaps 1 and 2 and employees for Gaps 3 and 4.
Second, because of the large number of constructs being measured most of them through multiple items , keep- ing the questionnaire as parsimonious as possible was a practical necessity.
Among the multiple-item scales designed to measure the organiza- zyxwvu tional constructs responsible for the provider gaps Gap , the follow- ing were refined based on an examination of corrected item-to-total correlations for the scale items and alpha values for the scales: tusk standardization, perception of feasibility, teamwork, employee-job fit, perceived control, supervisory control systems, role conflict, role ambiguity, horizontal communication, and propensity to overpromise.
Sample Design Five nationally-known service companies-a telephone company, two insurance companies, and two banks were involved in the study. A total of 89 such units, con- sisting of telephone repair service districts, branch banks, and field of- fices of insurance companies provided samples of customers, contact zyxwvu employees, and managers.
For the customer sample, each company provided a mailing list con- taining at least 75 randomly chosen customers of each field unit location. Questionnaires were mailed to customers by a commercial marketing research firm that assisted in data collection and coding.
For the em- ployee and manager samples, questionnaires were sent through intra- company mail to all contact employees and managers affiliated with the field units that participated in the study. All three groups of respondents zyxwv received a reminder postcard 2 weeks after the questionnaires were mailed. Completed questionnaires were returned directly to the market- ing research firm. Demographic profiles of the respon- zyx dents were shared with the sponsor companies and were felt to be representative of the respective groups that were surveyed.
Banks and other financial services providers are increasingly developing service quality initiatives. In this article some of the research literature on service quality is considered to include definitions, determinants and measurement of quality. Attention is also given to research applications which focus on management, employee and customer perspectives. In addition, a number of continuing service quality concerns are highlighted, relating to changing customer expectations, the need for an integrated approach to service quality and the development of service quality measurement tools. Lewis, B. Report bugs here.
The purpose of this study was to examine the expected and the observed service quality of the Lao National Swimming Pool. The five key informants were interviewed and pool customers participated in this study. A majority of the samples
By examining my personal development and career trajectory, I hope to share some insights into life as an academic. My particular path has contained, as most paths do, twists and turns. As I look back, they all seem somehow related to each other, but they were not all planned. I will discuss my life and career in chronological order, then reflect on my career and research philosophy.
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The objective of this research was to analyze the influence of the dimensions that enable the rating of service quality perceived by users of sport and health centers in the satisfaction they experience from the service received. In order to present the working hypothesis, a bibliographic review on the concept and dimensions of perceived service quality was carried out, as well as its relationship with satisfaction. The rating scale sports organizations EPOD was used as a measurement instrument. The application of a regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses.
Excellence in customer service is the hallmark of success in service industries and among manufacturers of products that require reliable service.
The system can't perform the operation now. Try again later. Citations per year. Duplicate citations. The following articles are merged in Scholar.
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