history of philosophy eastern and western pdf file

History of philosophy eastern and western pdf file

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History of western philosophy

The term was probably coined by Pythagoras c.

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Start by pressing the button below! History of Philosophy: Eastern and Western. Volume: 2. Philosophy was open to every human being, it was indeed the only way of salvation. Indeed, the souls of men can be purified from the mud and darkness of this world and saved for the world to come only by the study of philosophy.

When a man studies it and grasps a part of it, even the smallest part we can think of, he purifies the soul from mud and darkness and assures its salvation. Were all those who have hitherto tended to destroy their souls and neglected philosophical study to give the slightest attention to it, it would be their salvation from this mud and darkness, even if they grasp only a small part of it.

A famous Platonic saying comes to mind: ''If one mixes a small quantity of pure white with average white, this average becomes more white, more beautiful and more true. Ar-Razi does not believe in the eternity of the world but following some interpreters of the Timaeus such as Plutarch and Galen, teaches that the world came into being in time, whereas matter alone is eternal.

Although he denies the creation from nothing this comes nearer to the Islamic view and reminds us of the attack made on Proclus by the Christian John Philoponus which was afterwards used by Al-Ghaza. God the creator is described as Omniscient and All-Just, as absolute Knowledge and Justice, but also as absolute Mercy. Man should, according to Plato, make himself like God, in the greatest degree possible to man. Hence the creature nearest to God's favour is the wisest, the justest, the most merciful and compassionate.

Philosophy is not mere learning but a way of life, knowing and acting accordingly. All this is not so far from the spirit of Islam. Ar-Razi claims to be a Platonist, and it cannot be denied that Platonic, or rather Neoplatonic, elements dominate his thought, and that his views differ widely from those late Greek systems which the majority of Islamic philosophers followed.

Al-Farabi attacked him in two treatises, notably for this reason. We are still rather in the dark about the immediate sources of Ar-Razi's philosophical thought. He knew Proclus, for example, well and had translations of him at his disposal. Probably his philosophical knowledge was as all-embracing as his medical knowledge, of which we have better information. There were five eternal principles, not one, as in the other systems: the Creator, the soul of the world, matter, absolute time and absolute space.

He was aware that he differed fundamentally from Aristotle, but very deliberately and decidedly he claimed to follow his own way: "But I say But the greatness of the man cannot be doubted. Both he and Al-Kindi wrote treatises on popular ethics, based exclusively on Greek material. They are both available in modern translations; and it is obvious which of the two succeeded better in bringing the commonplaces of the Platonic tradition to life.

Ar-Razi could fill them with his own experience of life, whereas in Al-Kindi we are aware of the arguments but we are not really touched. Ibn Sina tells us that he knew everything at the age of eighteen and did not add anything to his knowledge in the course of his later life: it became more mature but it did not grow in bulk.

ArRazi was far from such self-righteousness. His verdict is not very far from the truth. His father had held a high position as governor of Kiifa, and he had spent most of his life at the Caliph's court in Baghdad. Ar-Razi was of Persian origin and passed the greater part of his life in his native town of Raiy, near the site of Teheran but spent some time in Baghdad as well.

Al-Farabi was a Turk from Transoxania, who studied first in Khurasan, then came to live for many years in Baghdad, becoming eventually a pensioner of the famous Hamdanid Shi' ite ruler of Aleppo, Saifad-daula. Al-Farabi was bent on assigning to philosophy a dominant position in the Islamic world and was not satisfied to give it the second place as the handmaiden of theology. Nor, on the other hand, was he convinced that Ar-Razi's attempt could be successful in the long run and that the Law of Islam and the theology which had developed from it could be 'excluded from the higher life.

His own works show a different approach. Philosophy was not to replace traditional religion altogether but was to assign it its proper position as had been done in the Greek world by Plato.

He tried, indeed, to re-interpret the whole of Islam from his own philosophical standpoint, using Greek philosophy as a torch which gave new light to every aspect of Islamic life: dialectical theology, creed and Qur'an, law, jurisprudence, grammar, aesthetic appreciation of artistic prose and poetry, and above all the organization of the perfect society and the essential qualities of its ruler. If the times were propitious, one universal world-state might come into existence; if not, several religions might exist side by side, ancl, if this also were impracticable, Islam at least might be reshaped according to the demands of the royal power of philosophy, which was the highest perfection of which man was capable.

Yet Al-Farabi was not a man of action himself, as Plato had been, but rather a thinker who put forward a new scheme to show how things ought to be, living himself in retirement as an ascetic and watching the world with a serenity of mind of his own. Al-Farabi did not, like Al-Kindi, claim simply to follow the Greek philosophers. But this alone would scarcely have made him a Muslim philosopher. Fortunately he makes his procedure sufficiently clear himself, and in addition he gives four comprehensive surveys of his whole philosophical system which are all available for study and comment.

A more orthodox Aristotelianism than that adopted by Al-Kindi was conjoined in Al-Farabi with an appreciation of Plato's political theory which enables him to contribute forcefully to the discussion of the qualities by which the successor of the Prophet, the head of the Muslim community, was to be distinguished.

If philosophy was the highest achievement of man, he must be a philosopher king. In the use of Plato's Republic as a textbook of political theory Al-Farabi was followed by Ibn Rushd as also in other important aspects of his thought , but we look in Ibn Rushd's highly polished and admirably worked-out productions in vain for his predecessor's reformatory zeal and original freshness.

Ibn Rushd treated the Republic in his lecture courses, because Aristotle's Politics was not available in Arabic translation and because Al-Farabi had done so before. Al-Farabi's interest in Plato arose from genuine Islamic problems of his day, and enabled him to find an original and impressive solution.

An otherwise unknown account of Plato's philosophy which did full justice to the political side of his work, an equally unknown commentary on Plato's Republic, and a paraphrase of Plato's Laws were used by Al-Farabi to convey his views on the ideal caliph to Muslim readers.

He eliminated almost every element of Plato's logic, physics and metaphysics which he considered superseded by later developments of Greek philosophy, and picked out the arguments which he could use for his purpose. In the same way he included in his first comprehensive work on philosophy a general summary of Aristotle, stopping short at the M etaphysics, using here a scheme of ordinary Neoplat"nic type, as described above.

He made it clear in his programme that he was only selecting those parts of the Platonic and Aristotelian legacy which :fitted his own ends. What these were is not always absolutely clear, and he leaves it to the intelligent reader to guess their application for himself. He could only express himself this way and is very sparing with direct hints. Read more. History of Western Philosophy. History of western philosophy.

A History of Western Philosophy. A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 2. History of Philosophy, Volume 7 Modern Philosophy. Medieval Thought History of Western Philosophy. History of Philosophy, Volume 6. History of Philosophy, Volume 5. History of Philosophy, Volume 8 Modern Philosophy. Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation.

Eastern Religions and Western Thought. History of Indian Philosophy 2. Nishida and Western Philosophy. Recommend Documents. Volume: 2". Your name. Close Send. Remember me Forgot password? Our partners will collect data and use cookies for ad personalization and measurement. Learn how we and our ad partner Google, collect and use data.

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Western philosophy refers to the philosophical thought and work of the Western world. Historically, the term refers to the philosophical thinking of Western culture , beginning with the ancient Greek philosophy of the pre-Socratics. The scope of ancient Western philosophy included the problems of philosophy as they are understood today; but it also included many other disciplines, such as pure mathematics and natural sciences such as physics , astronomy , and biology Aristotle , for example, wrote on all of these topics. The pre-Socratic philosophers were interested in cosmology ; the nature and origin of the universe, while rejecting mythical answers to such questions. The first recognized philosopher, Thales of Miletus born c. His use of observation and reason to derive this conclusion is the reason for distinguishing him as the first philosopher.

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History of Philosophy: Eastern and Western. Edited by SirSarvepalli Radhakrishnan. (London: Allen and Unwin Ltd. Two vols. Pp. + Price 65s.).

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Main menu Home. Presocratics 1. Anaximander, Anaximenes.

Assyria, — B. The Ancient Near East is not a country, but a general area that often extends from what we now call the Middle East to Egypt. Stiebing Jr.

West African intellectuals like J. Brian Copenhaver joins us to explain how Ficino and other Renaissance philosophers thought about magic. Ficino, Pico, Cardano, and other Renaissance thinkers debate whether astrology and magic are legitimate sciences with a foundation in natural philosophy. Was the anti-Aristotelian natural philosophy of Bernardino Telesio and Tommaso Campanella the first modern physical theory? By exploring the work and activities of W.

History of western philosophy

A survey of Western philosophy from the pre-Socratic philosophers to the early 20th century, it was criticised for Russell's over-generalization and omissions, particularly from the post- Cartesian period, but nevertheless became a popular and commercial success, and has remained in print from its first publication. Its success provided Russell with financial security for the last part of his life. The book was written during the Second World War , having its origins in a series of lectures on the history of philosophy that Russell gave at the Barnes Foundation in Philadelphia during and

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History of Philosophy: Eastern and Western. Volume: 2


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