File Name: fundamental principles and basic concept of accounting .zip
The worldview of accounting and accountants may certainly involve some unhelpful characters poring over formidable figures stacked up in indecipherable columns. Accounting is the language of business efficiently communicated by well-organised and honest professionals called accountants. The process of identifying, measuring and communicating economic information to permit informed judgments and decisions by users of the information. The art of recording, classifying, summarising in a significant manner and in terms of money, transactions and events which are, in part at least of financial character, and interpreting the results thereof. Recording every financial transaction is important to a business organisation and its creditors and investors.
A conceptual framework is a system of ideas and objectives that lead to the creation of a consistent set standards. A conceptual framework can be defined as a system of ideas and objectives that lead to the creation of a consistent set of rules and standards.
Specifically in accounting, the rule and standards set the the nature, function and limits of financial accounting and financial statements.
Prior to , no group—public or private—was responsible for accounting standards. After the stock market crash, the Securities and Exchange Act of was passed. This resulted in the U. From to the FASB released eight concept statements. With a sound conceptual framework in place the FASB is able to issue consistent and useful standards.
Laying a Foundation for Building : U. Navy Petty Officer 3rd Class Channing Connelly, right, uses a laser-guided level to check for proper frame elevation as other Seabees adjust a frame board while working on a building foundation at a patrol base in Mahawil, Iraq, Feb.
The objective of business financial reporting is to provide information that is useful for making business and economic decisions. With these objectives in mind, financial accountants produce financial statements based on the accounting standards in a given jurisdiction. These standards may be the generally accepted accounting principles of a respective country, which are typically issued by a national standard setter, or International Financial Reporting Standards, which are issued by the International Accounting Standards Board.
Generally Accepted Accounting Principles refer to the standard framework of guidelines for financial accounting used in any given jurisdiction; generally known as accounting standards or Standard accounting practice. These include the standards, conventions, and rules that accountants follow in recording and summarizing, and in the preparation of financial statements. International Financial Reporting Standards IFRS are designed as a common global language for business affairs so that company accounts are understandable and comparable across international boundaries.
They are a consequence of growing international shareholding and trade and are particularly important for companies that have dealings in several countries. They are progressively replacing the many different national accounting standards. The rules to be followed by accountants to maintain books of accounts which is comparable, understandable, reliable and relevant as per the users internal or external.
In order to prepare the financial statements, it is important to adhere to certain fundamental accounting concepts. Financial statements are prepared according to agreed upon guidelines. In order to understand these guidelines, it helps to understand the objectives of financial reporting. Accounting Concepts in a Diagram : This is a diagram of details for principles, concepts, and constraints within the field of Financial Accounting.
The revenue recognition principle and the matching principle are two cornerstones of accrual accounting. They both determine the accounting period, in which revenues and expenses are recognized. According to the revenue recognition principle, revenues are recognized when they are realized or realizable and earned—usually when goods are transferred or services rendered—regardless of when cash is received.
In contrast, cash accounting revenues are recognized when cash is received regardless of when goods or services are sold. Cash can be received before or after obligations are met—when goods or services are delivered. Related revenues as two types of accounts:. Revenues and Expenses : This graph shows the growth of the revenues, expenses, and net assets of the Wikimedia Foundation from june to june Two types of balancing accounts exist to avoid fictitious profits and losses.
These might occur when cash is not paid out in the same accounting period in which expenses are recognized. According to the matching principle in accrual accounting, expenses are recognized when obligations are incurred—regardless of when cash is paid out.
In contrast to recognition is disclosure. An item is disclosed when it is not included in the financial statements, but appears in the notes of the financial statements. Cash can be paid out in an earlier or later period than the period in which obligations are incurred. Related expenses result in the following two types of accounts:. Accrued expenses are a liability with an uncertain timing or amount; the uncertainty is not significant enough to qualify it as a provision.
One example would be an obligation to pay for goods or services received from a counterpart, while the cash is paid out in a later accounting period—when its amount is deducted from accrued expenses. Accrued expenses shares characteristics with deferred revenue. One difference is that cash received from a counterpart is a liability to be covered later; goods or services are to be delivered later—when such income item is earned, the related revenue item is recognized, and the same amount is deducted from deferred revenues.
Deferred expenses, or prepaid expenses or prepayment, are an asset. These expenses include cash paid out to a counterpart for goods or services to be received in a later accounting period—when fulfilling the promise to pay is actually acknowledged, the related expense item is recognized, and the same amount is deducted from prepayments.
Deferred expenses share characteristics with accrued revenue. One difference is that proceeds from a delivery of goods or services are an asset to be covered later, when the income item is earned and the related revenue item is recognized; cash for the items is received in a later period—when its amount is deducted from accrued revenues.
The matching principle is a culmination of accrual accounting and the revenue recognition principle. According to the principle, expenses are recognized when obligations are:.
If no cause-and-effect relationship exists e. Prepaid expenses are not recognized as expenses, but as assets until one of the qualifying conditions is met resulting in a recognition as expenses. If no connection with revenues can be established, costs are recognized immediately as expenses e. Prepaid expenses, such as employee wages or subcontractor fees paid out or promised, are not recognized as expenses cost of goods sold , but as assets deferred expenses , until the actual products are sold.
Introduction to Accounting. Search for:. The Accounting Concept. Reasons for a Conceptual Framework A conceptual framework is a system of ideas and objectives that lead to the creation of a consistent set standards.
Learning Objectives Explain the purpose of the conceptual framework in accounting. Key Takeaways Key Points The main reasons for developing an agreed conceptual framework are that it provides a framework for setting accounting standards, a basis for resolving accounting disputes, fundamental principles which then do not have to be repeated in accounting standards. Objectives of Accounting The objective of business financial reporting is to provide information that is useful for making business and economic decisions.
Financial accountants produce financial statements based on the accounting standards in a given jurisdiction. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles refer to the standard framework of guidelines for financial accounting used in any given jurisdiction. International Accounting Standards Board : an independent, accounting standard-setting body liabilities : An amount of money in a company that is owed to someone and has to be paid in the future, such as tax, debt, interest, and mortgage payments.
Fundamental Concepts in Accounting In order to prepare the financial statements, it is important to adhere to certain fundamental accounting concepts. Learning Objectives State the fundamental concepts and objectives of financial reporting. Key Takeaways Key Points Going Concern, unless there is evidence to the contrary, it is assumed that a business will continue to trade normally for the foreseeable future.
Accruals and Matching, revenue earned must be matched against expenditure when it was incurred. The objectives of financial reporting is to provide information that is relevant and useful. Accounting concepts deal with the standards and laws required to satisfy the needs of investors, employees, and other stakeholders.
Key Terms entity : That which has a distinct existence as an individual unit. Often used for organisations which have no physical form. Importance of Recognition and Measurement In accounting, recognition of revenues and expenses is based on the matching principle. Learning Objectives Explain the difference between accruals and deferrals. Deferred revenue: Revenue is recognized after cash is received. Accrued expense: Expense is recognized before cash is paid out.
Deferred expense: Expense is recognized after cash is paid out. Key Terms recognition : In accounting recognition is the act of including a transaction of a financial statement-either the income statement or the balance sheet. Licenses and Attributions. CC licensed content, Shared previously.
Accounting Principle. Accounting principles are the principle, concept, basic, guidance, as well as the rule that use by the accountant to prepare the financial statements of an entity. They are also used by the standard-setting body to develop accounting standards and frameworks. You may find out some of the accounting principles have been set out in the qualitative and quantitative characterization of information in IFRS. Most of the accounting principles are also set in the accounting standard and well as frameworks. Even those accounting standards local GAAP vary from one country to another, but the principles that set out in the standards are in the same fashion.
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These five basic principles form the foundation of modern accounting practices. Image via Flickr by LendingMemo. This principle defines a point in time when bookkeepers may record a transaction as revenue on the books. This means that revenue occurs at the time at which the buyer takes legal possession of the item sold or the service is performed, not at the moment at which cash for the transaction is accepted by the seller. This principle defines a point in time at which the bookkeeper may log a transaction as an expense in the books.
A conceptual framework is a system of ideas and objectives that lead to the creation of a consistent set standards. A conceptual framework can be defined as a system of ideas and objectives that lead to the creation of a consistent set of rules and standards. Specifically in accounting, the rule and standards set the the nature, function and limits of financial accounting and financial statements. Prior to , no group—public or private—was responsible for accounting standards. After the stock market crash, the Securities and Exchange Act of was passed. This resulted in the U. From to the FASB released eight concept statements.
This is a summary of the topics covered in Chapter 2: Fundamental Accounting Concepts.
An accountant is a person who does the basic job of maintaining accounts as he is Concepts and. Accounting Principles underlying Financial Statements of Business practice. In other words, fundamental accounting concepts are broad.Reply
Acquire basic concepts of Coat & Management Accounting relevant for managerial decision SECTION A: Fundamentals of Financial Accounting [80 MARKS].Reply