File Name: man are from mars and woman from venus .zip
I thank my wife, Bonnie, for sharing the journey of developing this book with me. I thank her for allowing me to share our stories and especially for expanding my understanding and ability to honor the female point of view. I thank our three daughters, Shannon, Julie, and Lauren, for their continued love and appreciation. The challenge of being a parent has allowed me to understand the struggles my parents had and love them even more.
His website refers to him as Dr. Gray and identifies him as an expert in the field of communication, a former certified marriage and family therapist, and "the premier Better Life relationship coach on AOL," but it does not identify the field in which he earned a Ph. Gray, In the paperback edition of his book, he identifies himself as member of the National Academy for Certified Therapists Gray, , but a search for this organization on the Internet brings forward no further information.
He also holds membership in the American Counseling Association, which is open to all interested parties of any background. Gray attended both St. Thomas University and the University of Texas but did enthusiastically recognized themselves in the descriptions" , p. At the same time, he offers no empirical evidence of how and where this research was conducted, nor a list of references or citations.
Instead, Gray, who says the inspiration for the different planet concept came to him while watching the movie E. Peterson, , stated in an interview with Weber that his theories were formed during his own seminars: "A man would make a complaint about his wife, and I'd ask my audience: 'How many men here feel that way?
Gray "shrugs off" Goldman, the disdain of academics and journalists who question his methods and credentials. He refers to himself variously as a "spiritual athlete" Good, , a practitioner of "spiritual counseling" Goldman, , and a "spiritual healer" Hamlin, Gray responds to criticism by saying, "I don't need to put a PhD by my name.
I'm the most famous author in the world" Washington Post, To say that John Gray's credentials and methods are uncertain is not an exaggeration. Even so, there is no question that he hit the cultural mother lode when he came up with the title for his book, Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus.
Something about this title resonates with people to the point that the phrase now appears in a multitude of contexts, from the title of a recent New York Times article that begins by discussing President Bush's decision not to fire Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld Steinhauer, to a Volvo commercial. The phrase is a part of our everyday lexicon to the extent that when hearing it, individuals do not pause to Chapter 2: Literature Review Despite the fact that John Gray's expertise and methodology are questionable, the phrase "men are from Mars, women are from Venus" appears to have become a shortcut for expressing an acceptance of the existence of innate gender differences and an explanation for any and all difficulties men and women encounter in their communication efforts with one another.
To discover whether the phrase "men are from Mars, women are from Venus" has become a meme since coming on the scene in , it is necessary to explore the research on meme theory and to develop of a list of criteria for defining a meme. In order to study the implications that the presence of this phrase may have for communication between men and women, it is necessary to examine Gray's theories against the work of recognized scholars who have done extensive research in the area of gender differences and similarities.
Theoretical BackgroundMeme Theory. When zoologist Richard Dawkins coined the term "meme," he proposed that the meme is to culture what the gene is to biology, a replicator -"a unit of information with the ability to reproduce itself using resources from some material substrate" Aunger, , p. Dawkins, , pp. This explanation, which unleashed a firestorm of discussion on the validity of a biological comparison, was Dawkins's attempt to provide an analogy that would facilitate initial understanding of the meme concept.
Dawkins did not intend a strict or literal comparison , and has warned that the analogy "can be taken too far if we are not careful" Dawkins, , p.
Others debate what the definitive definition of meme theory should be Hull, while still others question whether the theory has lasting value Rose, The discussion of meme theory is so extensive and literal application is so rare that the lack of development of the meme concept has been "conspicuous" Aunger, , p. Whether memetics is or can be declared a science with syntactic language or whether it is a merely a semantic classification Dennett, is a question that will continue to rage among critics and devoted memeticians alike.
While these debates are important, they do not invalidate the meme concept Aunger, and they complicate what is intrinsically a concise and simple concept. A meme is not a fleeting impression or a random thought, and it is more than just an idea. If a scientist hears or reads about a good idea, he passes it on to his colleagues and students. He mentions it in his articles and his lectures. If the idea catches on, it can be said to propagate itself, spreading from brain to brain Dawkins, , p.
In this example, Dawkins appears to bow to his learned colleagues by assuming that they will only be passing along "good" ideas, but he also acknowledges a meme need only be appealing. It does not, by necessity, have to originate from a good idea.
In order for any idea, tune, or catch phrase to become a meme it is only necessary that it take root in a society through self-replication and propagation, reproducing itself with fidelity Dawkins, A devoted scientist himself, he did not make judgments about the validity of what becomes a meme, he simply reported that elements of culture "stick" and are passed along from brain to brain, "turning it into a vehicle for the meme's propagation in just the way that a virus may parasitize the genetic mechanism of a host cell" Dawkins, , p.
Dawkins also compares the manner in which memes spread to a computer virus Dawkins, In order for a virus to spread from computer to computer it requires that a friendly, promiscuous environment be present. The virus must be accepted by an enormous number of contact points, which in turn push it along to other friendly points of contact. It is no longer reliant on its creator or original host for survival Microsoft, Humans come across millions of ideas each day via conversation, the media, literature, and in meditation.
The tiny number of ideas that survive in the memory and the even fewer number that are passed along to others are the "survivors," the memes that shape our minds and cultures Blackmore, That the phrase "men are from Mars, women are from Venus" is now a part of the American lexicon is apparent in that use of the phrase is commonplace.
It can be overheard in casual conversation and on television. It shows up in articles, in comics, and in advertisements wholly unconnected with John Gray or his empire.
The humorist Dave Barry titled a book Dave Barry is from Mars and Venus because he was looking for a catchy title and, in his words, "nobody has any idea what it means" , p. Kristin Varela used "men are from Mars" in an article on Volvos for abc. An editorial in Chest Magazine which caters to physicians used concepts introduced in Gray's book to support a theory that sleep apnea is a "Martian" disease Collop, , and as recently as last spring, an article in the New York Times on how couples make decisions was titled "Never Mind Mars and Venus: Who Is 'the Decider'?
In order for a replicator such as the phrase "men are from Mars, women are from Venus" to be considered a meme it must show high survival value via longevity, fecundity, and copyingfidelity Dawkins, Longevity illustrates the stability or durability of a meme over time Comte, A replicator must survive long enough to effect how quickly it is replicated Dawkins, Fecundity, or the ability to reproduce in abundance, gives a measure of the lasting value of the meme Dawkins, and is, according to Dawkins, a particularly important quality.
Fecundity serves as evidence of the meme's range of influence Conte, and acceptability by a population. The spread of a popular tune through the meme pool, for example, may be gauged not only "by the number of people heard whistling it in the streets" Dawkins, , p. Dennett refers to this as usage that spreads as quickly as the replication of yeast cells When it comes to copying-fidelity, Dawkins suggests that, at first glance, memes do not appear to be high-fidelity replicators since each whistler puts his or her own spin on the popular tune being transmitted.
What is replicated, however, is the essence of the original tune Dawkins, With the exception of Mr. Barry, what the publications noted above have in common is the assumption that the meaning of "men are from Mars, women are from Venus" is generally understood, and its essence is accepted by a population as a viable interpretation of communicative relations between men and women, whether it actually is or not.
Gender Theories. Theories of gender are biological, interpersonal, and cultural. According to a recent article in Newsweek, psychiatrist Louann Brizendine's book, The FemaleBrain, argues that advances in neuroimaging and neuroendocrinology make it possible to understand real differences in male and female brains. Andersen protests that an atmosphere of political correctness makes it difficult to have a truly open discussion of probable biologically based differences.
He argues that studies measuring a higher level of nonverbal sensitivity in grade school age females than in their male peers suggest either biological differences or extremely early development, which he views as implausible Andersen, Biological theories of difference do not always sit well with social scientists and medical professionals who tend to see such differences as minimal and who embrace the influence of social factors on the development of gender differences.
Scientists such as psychiatrist and neuroimaging expert Nancy C. Andreasen views studies that ignore this evidence as flawed by claims for biological differences which are exaggerated insignificance.
There is also the belief that such studies are ultimately detrimental to women's attempts to reach equal footing in the workplace and at home.
In questioning why findings of dimorphic difference are viewed as fundamentally and innately important, Condit responds that studies on brain sex are too often based on "bad science" , p. She concludes that hypotheses for brain sex research are "framed in such a way that any finding of dichotomous difference outweighs all findings of similarity" p.
Theories about how nurture or interpersonal influences affect gender differences include two psychological explanations. First, social learning theory, or cognitive social learning, holds that individuals learn "appropriate behavior" by observing others Bandura, Adults offer primary reinforcement of appropriate gender-role behavior to children through everything from the toys they provide to their urging lady-like behavior and asserting that "big boys don't cry," to their own interaction with and reaction to the opposite sex.
Second, gender schema theory also explains gender differences as based on interpersonal influences. This theory states that children form a network of mental associations about gender based on what they witness in the behavior of adults around them, which then provides a guide for interpreting any information gathered about males and females Lips, Cultural theories about gender differences include the anthropological findings of scientists such as Margaret Mead.
In her work among the people of Papua, New Guinea, in the s, Mead discovered that temperamental differences between the sexes were culturally determined rather than innate Library of Congress, In response to criticism from a reader who complained that Mead attributed all differences between male and female personalities to environment, Mead replied: I nowhere say that there are no primary, i. I think there probably are. But it is as if one said: All Negroes have black skins and a special ability to sing in the high register, and the first statement were true and the second statement were false, and then tried to connect black skins and singing in the high register.
Until we stop saying that differences which are differences between people, not between the sexes, are sex differences, we can not discuss such things as sex differences…let us not mix up the things which are temperamental, and vary between individuals, with the things which are sex determined and vary by sex" Mead, This assumption that certain distinct characteristics are the essence of woman while other, different and equally distinct characteristics are the essence of man is known as essentializing Wood, Generalized statements that specific characteristics or behaviors are true for all men, while others are true for all women, are based in the idea that behavior is inherent and constant.
Essentializing and gender stereotyping leave no room for individuality or for views such as those found in standpoint theory.
Read the full comprehensive summary at Shortform. Imagine that men and women come from two different planets. In this book, author John Gray breaks down the primary differences between men and women and gives comprehensive advice for dealing with miscommunication, showing support to your partner in the way they crave, and being more fulfilled with your relationship. Find out why your husband pulls away just when you need him most, and why your wife needs to talk relentlessly about her feelings. One of the most drastic natural differences between men and women lies in their response to stress. Remember, men from Mars are primarily focused on autonomy and competence.
If you have been convinced since reading books like Men Are From Mars, Women Are From Venus that your relationship troubles can be blamed on your partner because of their sex, you might need to think again. A new study published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology has revealed the seismic news that men and women are categorically the same. Men and Women really aren't so different, after all, it turns out. Or so scientists believe. Reis and lead author Bobbi Carothers from Washington University in St Louis, looked at previous studies, analysing different characteristics such as fear of success, intimacy and empathy in 13, individuals.
Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus to different areas of life where gender understanding is essential. • Regarding finding a date, dating, living together.
Gray shares advice on how to navigate intimate relationships by explaining the differences between men and women, and how to bridge that gap. About The Author : John Gray is a relationship counselor and a speaker. His academic background, not in psychology or humanistic fields, has been subject to some controversy.
John Gray, provides a practical and proven way for men and women to improve their communication and relationships by acknowledging the differences between them. Once upon a time Martians and Venusians met, fell in love, and had happy relationships together because they respected and accepted their differences. Then they came to Earth and amnesia set in: they forgot they were from different planets. Based on years of successful counseling of couples and individuals, Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus has helped millions of couples transform their relationships. Now viewed as a modern classic, this timeless book has helped men and women realize how different they can be in their communication styles, their emotional needs, and their modes of behavior, and offers the secrets of communicating without conflicts, allowing couples to give intimacy every chance to grow.
Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus  is a book written by American author and relationship counselor John Gray , after he had earned degrees in meditation and taken a correspondence course in psychology. The book states that most common relationship problems between men and women are a result of fundamental psychological differences between the sexes, which the author exemplifies by means of its eponymous metaphor: that men and women are from distinct planets —men from Mars and women from Venus —and that each sex is acclimated to its own planet's society and customs, but not to those of the other. One example is men's complaint that if they offer solutions to problems that women bring up in conversation, the women are not necessarily interested in solving those problems, but mainly want to talk about them.
Once upon a time Martians and Venusians met, fell in love, and had happy relationships together because they respected and accepted their differences.
Он был зашифрован с помощью некоего нового алгоритма, с которым фильтры еще не сталкивались. Джаббе потребовалось почти шесть часов, чтобы их настроить. Бринкерхофф выглядел растерянным. - Стратмор был вне. Он заставил Джаббу вмонтировать в ТРАНСТЕКСТ переключатель системы Сквозь строй, чтобы отключить фильтры в случае, если такое повторится. - Господи Иисусе.
Наконец он заговорил - спокойно, тихо и даже печально: - Нет, Грег, извини. Я не могу тебя отпустить. Хейл даже замер от неожиданности. - Что. - Я вызываю агентов безопасности. - Нет, коммандер! - вскрикнула Сьюзан. - Нет.
Чатрукьян растерялся. - Так вы обратили внимание.