File Name: poverty and inequality macroeconomic.zip
This article explores the interrelationships among poverty, economic performance, and inequality in rich countries. It argues that poverty rises and falls with the business cycle and economic performance.
While The Equality Trust recognises the importance of these measures, the focus of our work is specifically the gap between the well-off and the less well-off in the overall economic distribution. This is reflected in the choice of terms and statistics in this section. Income is not just the money received through pay, but all the money received from employment wages, salaries, bonuses etc. Measurement of income can be on an individual or household basis — the incomes of all the people sharing a particular household. Household income before tax that includes money received from the social security system is known as gross income.
This paper analyzes the relationship between macroeconomic factors and the income distribution using data on equivalized disposable household income from the United Kingdom for — We argue in favour of fitting a parametric functional form to the income distribution for each year, and then modeling the time series of model parameters in terms of the macroeconomic factors, as this better allows us to take into account non-stationarity in the time series. Estimates from models that relate income distribution parameters to cyclical variables in first differences to account for non-stationarity suggest that neither inflation nor unemployment have significant effects on income inequality. Compared to the commonly-used method of modelling the income shares directly, our approach indicates that there was no clear cut relationship between macroeconomic factors and the UK income distribution during the last third of the twentieth century. This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. W e live in an unequal world in which descriptors of global inequality—especially inequalities in income—abound. Researchers and policy makers continue to debate how, and at what scale, inequality trends are changing, but, by any measure, the disparities between rich and poor are striking Firebaugh, ; Milanovic, ; The Economist , ; Held and Kaya, ; Lobao et al. The recent past has also seen rapid economic globalization—characterized by the supranational spatial integration of economies and societies Stiglitz, Understanding the nature of, and linkages between, globalization and inequality is crucial because disparities abound in access to needs such as shelter, land, food and clean water, sustainable livelihoods, technology, and information. Inequalities in all of these realms pose challenges to human security and environmental sustainability.
This paper aims to explore the quality of economic growth in a sample of 50 emerging and transition economies ETEs , which are countries experiencing a process of fast growth and institutional change. Economic growth during — is regressed against poverty, inequality and human development variables using OLS cross-country regression models. The main findings are that growth did not reduce poverty and income inequality worsened too. On the one hand, economic growth occurred despite the worsening of income inequality. Only countries with higher education levels and public expenditure in strategic dimensions seem to escape from this trap.
PDF | The purpose of this study is to review a major section of the literature on macroeconomics and poverty to achieve better perspectives on emerging | Find.
The last two decades has witnessed an increase in globalizing influences affecting most countries, Africa included. These influences have arisen partly as a result of domestic and international policies, such as trade policies, and partly as a result of general globalizing impulses, such as technological developments and enhanced communications. The single overarching objective of this paper is to outline the macro evidence on the extent to which globalization is taking place and poverty is reducing in Africa, and to consider this to both characteristics of the region i. It draws on some of the most recent evidence about the globalizing processes in various forms so as to try to determine the speed and extent of globalization in Africa. This helps to put into proper perspective the impact of globalization on poverty and inequality.
Equitable Growth supports research and policy analysis on how strong competition among U. Equitable Growth supports research and policy analysis on how unequal access to care, 21st century work-life policies, and education undermines stable, broad-based economic growth. Equitable Growth supports research and policy analysis on how trends in economic inequality and mobility and changes in the economy have affected the concentration of wealth, income, and earnings, and how these distributional shifts have affected the promise of economic security and opportunity.
Pro-Poor Macroeconomics pp Cite as. The success is defined by the high and sustained rates of growth of aggregate and per capita national income; the absence of major financial crises that have characterized a number of other emerging markets; and substantial reductions in income poverty. The importance of these two countries also spills over into discussions of international inequality. In this chapter, we attempt such an examination, assessing growth performance and its impact on poverty and inequality, and also specifically addressing the question of how the macro policies have contributed to observed outcomes.
There are wide varieties of economic inequality , most notably measured using the distribution of income the amount of money people are paid and the distribution of wealth the amount of wealth people own. Besides economic inequality between countries or states, there are important types of economic inequality between different groups of people. Important types of economic measurements focus on wealth , income , and consumption. There are many methods for measuring economic inequality,  with the Gini coefficient being a widely used one.
Она отличалась острым умом, хорошей интуицией, частенько засиживалась допоздна и, как говорили, знала о внутренних делах АНБ куда больше самого Господа Бога. Черт возьми, - подумал Бринкерхофф, разглядывая ее серое кашемировое платье, - или я старею, или она молодеет. - Еженедельные отчеты. - Мидж улыбнулась, помахивая пачкой документов. - Вам нужно проверить, как это выглядит. Бринкерхофф окинул взглядом ее фигуру. - Отсюда выглядит просто отлично.
Наконец он заговорил - спокойно, тихо и даже печально: - Нет, Грег, извини. Я не могу тебя отпустить. Хейл даже замер от неожиданности. - Что. - Я вызываю агентов безопасности.
Чатрукьян вдруг обрел прежнюю уверенность.