File Name: renewable and non renewable sources of energy .zip
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As we noted in Chapter 12, the reserves of non-renewable resources are inexorably diminished as they are extracted from the environment and used in the human economy.
This is because non-renewable resources are finite in quantity and their stocks do not regenerate after they are mined. Note that the word reserve has a specific meaning here — it is used to denote a known amount of material that can be economically recovered from the environment that is, while making a profit.
Of course, continuing exploration may discover previously unknown deposits of non-renewable resources. If that happens, there is an increase in the known reserves of the resource. Changes in the value of non-renewable commodities also affect the sizes of their economically recoverable reserves. An improvement of technology may have the same effect, for instance, by making it profitable to process ores mine that were previously non-economic.
In addition, the life cycle in the economy of some non-renewable resources, particularly metals, can be extended by recycling. This process involves collecting and processing disused industrial and household products to recover reusable materials, such as metals and plastics. Furthermore, the demand for non-renewable resources is increasing rapidly because of population growth, spreading industrialization, and improving standards of living along with the associated per-capita consumption.
This has resulted in an accelerating demand for non-renewables that must be satisfied by mining additional quantities from the environment. The most important classes of non-renewable resources are metals, fossil fuels, and certain other minerals such as gypsum and potash. The production and uses of these important natural resources are examined in the following sections. Metals have a wide range of useful physical and chemical properties.
They can be used as pure elemental substances, as alloys mixtures of various metals, and as compounds that also contain non-metals. Metals are used to manufacture tools, machines, and electricity-conducting wires; to construct buildings and other structures; and for many other purposes.
The precious metals gold Au , platinum Pt , and silver Ag have some industrial uses such as conductors in electronics , but are valued mostly for aesthetic reasons, particularly to manufacture jewelry. Metals are mined from the environment, usually as minerals that also contain sulphur or oxygen. Deposits of metal-bearing minerals that are economically extractable contribute to the known reserves of metals.
An ore is an assortment of minerals that are mined and processed to manufacture pure metals. The stages in metal mining, processing, manufacturing, and recycling are summarized in Figure Figure Metal Mining and Use.
This diagram shows major stages of the mining, manufacturing, use, and re-use of metals, as well as the associated emissions of waste gases and particulates to the environment. Overall, the diagram represents a flow-through system, with some recycling to extend the lifetime of metals within the economy.
Source: Modified from Freedman Ore extraction by mining is the initial step in the process of bringing is metals into the material economy. This may be conducted in surface pits or strip mines, or in underground shaft-mines that may penetrate kilometers underground. In an industrial facility called a mill, the ore is crushed to a fine powder by heavy steel balls or rods within huge rotating tumblers. The ground ore is then separated into a metal-rich fraction and a waste known as tailings.
Depending on the local geography, the waste tailings may be discarded onto a contained area on land, into a nearby lake, or into the ocean see Chapter If the metal-rich fraction contains sulphide minerals, it is next concentrated in a smelter by roasting at high temperature in the presence of oxygen. This releases gaseous sulphur dioxide SO 2 while leaving the metals behind. The concentrate from the smelter is later processed into pure metal in a facility called a refinery.
The pure metal is then used to manufacture industrial and consumer products. After the useful life of manufactured products has ended, they can be recycled back into the refining and manufacturing processes, or they may be discarded into a landfill. High-quality ores are geologically uncommon. The deposits that are most economic for mining are typically located fairly close to the surface, and the ores have a relatively high concentration of metals.
However, the thresholds vary depending on the value of the metal being processed. Ores with very small concentrations of gold and platinum can be economically mined because these metals are extremely valuable per unit of weight. In contrast, less-valuable aluminum and iron must be mined as richer ores, in which the metals are present in high concentrations.
Data showing the global production of industrially important metals are given in Table Note that for most metals the amounts consumed are somewhat larger than the annual production; this indicates that some of the consumption involves recycled material that has been reclaimed from previous uses. Also note the large increase in production of most metals since Iron and aluminum are the metals produced and used in the largest quantities.
The life index or production life, calculated as the known reserves divided by the annual rate of production of aluminum is about years, and for iron ore it is 58 years Table Life indexes for other metals listed in the table are less, which suggests that their known reserves are being quickly depleted.
It is important to remember, however, that those known reserves are increased by new discoveries, changes in technology, and more favourable economics for the resource. Table Data from: U. Bureau of Mines and U. Geological Survey Much metal production is intended for export. The reserve life life index of Canadian reserves of metals is similar to or shorter than their global values Table Note that bauxite aluminum ore is not mined in Canada, but large amounts are imported for processing.
Data from: Natural Resources Canada a and U. Provincial Production of Selected Metals in Canada, Data from: Natural Resources Canada a. Fossil fuels include coal, petroleum, natural gas, oil-sand, and oil-shale. These materials are derived from the partially decomposed biomass of dead plants and other organisms that lived hundreds of millions of years ago. The ancient biomass became entombed in marine sediment, which much later became deeply buried and eventually lithified into sedimentary rocks such as shale and sandstone.
Deep within those geological formations, under conditions of high pressure, high temperature, and low oxygen, the organic matter transformed extremely slowly into hydrocarbons molecules that are composed only of carbon and hydrogen and other organic compounds. In some respects, fossil fuels can be considered to be a form of stockpiled solar energy — sunlight that was fixed by plants into organic matter and then stored geologically.
Image Because petroleum and other fossil fuels are non-renewable resources, their future reserves are diminished when they are extracted from the environment.
This is an oil pump in southeastern Saskatchewan. Source: B. In a geological sense, fossil fuels are still being produced today, by the same processes that involve dead biomass being subjected to high pressure and temperature. Because the natural geological production of fossil fuels continues, it might be argued that these materials are a kind of renewable resource.
However, the rate at which fossil fuels are being extracted and used is enormously faster than their extremely slow regeneration.
Under this circumstance, fossil fuels can only be regarded as being non-renewable. Hydrocarbons are the most abundant chemicals in fossil fuels.
However, many additional kinds of organic compounds may also be present, which incorporate sulphur, nitrogen, and other elements in their structure. Coal in particular is often contaminated with many inorganic minerals, such as shale and pyrite. The most important use of fossil fuels is as a source of energy. They are combusted in vehicle engines, power plants, and other machines to produce the energy needed to perform work in industry, for transportation, and for household use.
Fossil fuels are also used to produce energy to heat indoor spaces, an especially important function in countries with a seasonally cold climate. Another key use is for the manufacturing of synthetic materials, including almost all plastics.
In addition, asphaltic materials are used to construct roads and to manufacture roofing shingles for buildings. Coal is a solid material that can vary greatly in its chemical and physical qualities. The highest quality coals are anthracite and bituminous, which are hard, shiny, black minerals with a high energy density the energy content per unit of weight. Lignite is a poorer grade of coal, and it is a softer, flaky material with a lower energy density.
Coal is mined in various ways. If deposits occur close to the surface, they are typically extracted by strip-mining, which involves the use of huge shovels to uncover and collect the coal-bearing strata, which are then transported using immense trucks. Deeper deposits of coal are mined from underground shafts, which may follow a seam kilometers into the ground.
Most coal in North America is extracted by strip-mining. After it is mined, coal may be washed to remove some of the impurities and then ground into a powder. Coal can also be used to manufacture synthetic petroleum. Petroleum crude oil is a fluid mixture of hydrocarbons with some impurities, such as organic compounds that contain sulphur, nitrogen, and vanadium.
Petroleum from different places varies greatly, from a heavy tarry material that must be heated before it will flow, to an extremely light fluid that quickly volatilizes into the atmosphere. Petroleum is mined using drilled wells, from which the liquid mineral is forced to the surface by geological pressure.
Often, the natural pressure is supplemented by pumping. A heavy form of petroleum called bitumen is also produced by mining and refining oil- sand, which is extracted in northern Alberta.
Oil-sand deposits that are close to the surface are mined in immense open pits, while deeper materials are treated with steam so they will flow and are then extracted as a heavy liquid using drilled wells. Once extracted, petroleum is transported by overland pipelines, trucks, trains, and ships to an industrial facility known as a refinery, where the crude material is separated into various constituents.
The fractions may be used as a liquid fuel, or they can be manufactured into many useful materials, such as plastics and pigments. The refined fractions include the following:. Natural gas is also extracted using drilled wells. The dominant hydrocarbon in natural gas is methane, but ethane, propane, and butane are also present, as often is hydrogen sulphide.
A renewable resource , also known as a flow resource , [note 1]  is a natural resource which will replenish to replace the portion depleted by usage and consumption, either through natural reproduction or other recurring processes in a finite amount of time in a human time scale. When such recovery rate of resources is unlikely to ever exceed a human time scale, these are called perpetual resources. A positive life-cycle assessment is a key indicator of a resource's sustainability. Definitions of renewable resources may also include agricultural production, as in agricultural products and to an extent water resources. Common sources of renewable energy include solar, geothermal and wind power, which are all categorized as renewable resources. Fresh water is an example of renewable resources. Water can be considered a renewable material when carefully controlled usage and temperature, treatment, and release are followed.
As we noted in Chapter 12, the reserves of non-renewable resources are inexorably diminished as they are extracted from the environment and used in the human economy. This is because non-renewable resources are finite in quantity and their stocks do not regenerate after they are mined. Note that the word reserve has a specific meaning here — it is used to denote a known amount of material that can be economically recovered from the environment that is, while making a profit. Of course, continuing exploration may discover previously unknown deposits of non-renewable resources. If that happens, there is an increase in the known reserves of the resource.
These include fossil fuels such as various coals, crude oil, natural gas, and in the case of nuclear energy the resources uranium or thorium. And renewable.
Carbon dioxide is produced from the burning of fossil fuels like coal and gas. Non-renewable energy is a source of energy that will eventually run out. Most sources of non-renewable energy are fossil fuels , such as coal, gas, and oil. These natural resources are a major source of power for a vast amount of industries — however, there are numerous downsides to non-renewable energy, including their negative environmental impact and the fact they are in limited supply.
Before we get started on renewable energies let's take a look at non-renewable energy. These are resources found under the ground: coal, oil and gas. Trees breathe in carbon dioxide and store the carbon in their trunks.
Jump to navigation. Renewable power is booming , as innovation brings down costs and starts to deliver on the promise of a clean energy future.
In the United States and many other countries, most energy sources for doing work are nonrenewable energy sources: Petroleum Hydrocarbon gas liquids Natural gas Coal Nuclear energy. These energy sources are called nonrenewable because their supplies are limited to the amounts that we can mine or extract from the earth. Coal, natural gas, and petroleum formed over thousands of years from the buried remains of ancient sea plants and animals that lived millions of years ago. That is why we also call those energy sources fossil fuels. Most of the petroleum products consumed in the United States are made from crude oil, but petroleum liquids can also be made from natural gas and coal. Nuclear energy is produced from uranium, a nonrenewable energy source whose atoms are split through a process called nuclear fission to create heat and, eventually, electricity.
Non-Renewable energy is the energy which is taken from the sources that are available on the earth in limited quantity and will vanish fifty-sixty years from now. Non-renewable sources are not environmental friendly and can have serious affect on our health. They are called non-renewable because they cannot be re-generated within a short span of time. Non-renewable sources exist in the form of fossil fuels, natural gas, oil and coal. Energy needs to be conserved to protect our environment from drastic changes, to save the depleting resources for our future generations. The rate at which the energy is being produced and consumed can damage our world in many ways.
Последний месяц был для Лиланда Фонтейна временем больших ожиданий: в агентстве происходило нечто такое, что могло изменить ход истории, и, как это ни странно директор Фонтейн узнал об этом лишь случайно. Три месяца назад до Фонтейна дошли слухи о том, что от Стратмора уходит жена. Он узнал также и о том, что его заместитель просиживает на службе до глубокой ночи и может не выдержать такого напряжения. Несмотря на разногласия со Стратмором по многим вопросам, Фонтейн всегда очень высоко его ценил. Стратмор был блестящим специалистом, возможно, лучшим в агентстве. И в то же время после провала с Попрыгунчиком Стратмор испытывал колоссальный стресс. Это беспокоило Фонтейна: к коммандеру сходится множество нитей в агентстве, а директору нужно оберегать свое ведомство.
Через пять секунд она станет двусторонней. - Кто это такие? - переминаясь с ноги на ногу, спросил Бринкерхофф. - Всевидящее око, - сказал Фонтейн, вглядываясь в лица людей, которых он отправил в Испанию. Это была вынужденная мера. Фонтейн почти во всем полагался на Стратмора и верил в его план, в том числе и в достойную сожаления, но неизбежную необходимость устранять Энсея Танкадо и в переделку Цифровой крепости, - все это было правильно.
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