# Open circuit and short circuit test of transformer pdf

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Published: 14.04.2021

## Short Circuit Test

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If it is used for converting power from a high voltage to a low voltage, it is called a step-down transformer. The conversion efficiency of a power transformer is extremely high and almost all of the input power is supplied as output power at the secondary winding. The transformer may be represented by the equivalent circuit shown in figure 3.

### Short circuit or Impedance test on Transformer

To determine the circuit constant, efficiency and regulation of a transformer, without actually loading the transformer, we perform Open-Circuit and Short-Circuit tests. These tests give more accurate result than compared with the fully loaded transformer. And the power consumption in these tests is minimal as compared with the transformer's output on full load. A voltmeter V, an ammeter A, and a wattmeter W are connected in the low voltage lv side of transformer. The voltmeter v gives the rated voltage V 1 of the primary. A very small current I 0 , called the no-load current, flows in the primary side because the secondary side is open circuited.

Theory: The equivalent circuit parameters of a transformer can be determined by performing two tests: • Open-circuit test.

### Short Circuit Test

It is possible to predict the performance of a transformer at various loadings by knowing all the equivalent circuit parameters. Without actually loading the transformer, these two assessed tests give the test results which are used to determine the equivalent circuit parameters. By these parameters, we can easily predetermine the efficiency and regulation of the transformer at any power factor condition as well as at any load condition.

These two transformer tests are performed to find the parameters of equivalent circuit of transformer and losses of the transformer. Open circuit test and short circuit test on transformer are very economical and convenient because they are performed without actually loading of the transformer. Open circuit test or no load test on a transformer is performed to determine 'no load loss core loss ' and 'no load current I 0 '.

The open circuit and short circuit test are performed for determining the parameter of the transformer like their efficiency, voltage regulation, circuit constant etc. These tests are performed without the actual loading and because of this reason the very less power is required for the test. The open circuit and the short circuit test gives a very accurate result as compared to the full load test. The purpose of the open-circuit test is to determine the no-load current and losses of the transformer because of which their no-load parameters are determined.

#### Open circuit or No load test on Transformer

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