File Name: wine science principles and applications .zip
Introduction 2. Grape Species and Varieties 3.
By Ronald S. Catherines, Ontario, Canada. Front cover photographs: Left Vitis vinifera f. Nunez, Universidat de Murica. Center Old vertical wine press courtesy of R. See color insert for details.
No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Requests for permission to make copies of any part of the work should be mailed to: Permissions Department, Harcourt Inc. This book is dedicated to the miraculous microbes that can turn a marvellous fruit into a seraphic beverage, and to God, who has given us the ability to savor its finest qualities and pleasures.
The science of wine involves three major interrelated topics: grapevine growth, wine production, and wine sensory analysis. Although in most situations these topics can be covered separately, joint discussion of certain aspects of viticulture, enology, and wine assessment is valuable and reinforces their natural interrelationships.
Consistent with present biological thought, much of wine science is interpretable in terms of physics and chemistry. Because of the botanical nature of the raw materials and their microbial transformation into wine, the physiology and genetics of the vine, yeasts, and bacteria are crucial to an understanding of the origins of wine quality. Similarly, microclimatology and soil physicochemistry are revealing the vineyard origins of grape quality.
Finally, knowledge of human sensory psycho-physiology is essential for interpreting wine quality data. For those more interested in applications, much of the scientific discussion has been placed so that the practical aspects can be accessed without necessarily reading and understanding the scientific explanations.
Much of the data used in the book are derived from a few cultivars that originated in the cooler central regions of western Europe. The concept of wine quality is also biased toward styles that evolved in France and Germany. Thus, caution must be taken in extrapolating much of the information to warmer climates. The value of challenging established wisdom is evident from the success of Australian wine produced from cultivars grown in regions quite different from their European birthplace.
In addition, the oft-quoted value of cooler mesoclimates must be qualified because it is derived from cultivars that arose in moderate climates. Cultivars that originated in cold climates generally are considered to develop best at the warmest sites of the ancestral region. Thus, for varieties derived in hot regions, the most favorable conditions for flavor accumulation are likely to be considerably different from those commonly quoted for moderate and cool climates.
Specific recommendations have been avoided because of the international scope of the work. Even books with a regional focus find it difficult to give precise directions because of the variability in atmospheric and terrestrial conditions. Science can suggest guidelines and reasons for good practice and enunciate the potential advantages and disadvantages of particular options.
How well grape growers or winemakers know the subtleties of their sites, cultivars, and fermentation conditions will determine how skillfully they can maximize grape potential. It is hoped that this book will help place our present knowledge in perspective and illustrate where further study is needed. It is not possible in a book of this size to provide detailed treatment of all the diverging views on the many topics covered. I have chosen those views that in my opinion have the greatest support or significance.
In addition, several topics are quite contentious among grapegrowers and winemakers. For some issues, further study will clarify the topic; for others, personal preference will always be the deciding factor. I extend my apologies to those who may feel that their views have been inadequately represented. For grape cultivar names, single quotes have been used around the name i. A list of suggested readings is given at the end of each chapter to guide further study.
Although several are in languages other than English, they are excellent sources of precise information. To have omitted them would have done a disservice to those wishing to pursue the topics concerned.
In addition, references are given in the book if the information is very specific or not readily available in the suggested readings. Further details can be obtained from sources given for the figures and tables. A glossary is provided at the request of several readers and my students in wine technology.
In addition, the index has been expanded to help locate information in various parts of the book. Samuel Johnson made a cogent observation about the subject of this book. Authors must be cautious that their use of words does not have the same effect as wine:. Without the astute observations of generations of winemakers and grapegrowers and the dedicated research of countless enologists and viticulturalists, this work would have been impossible. Thus, acknowledgment is given to those whose work has not been specifically mentioned.
Appreciation also is given to those who have read parts of the book and have provided many constructive criticisms, especially E. Goussard University of Stellenbosch , T. Henick-Kling Cornell University , W. Kliewer University of California, Davis , W.
Noble University of California, Davis , R. Rogosin Brandon University , C. Shelton Klein Family Vintners , R. Smart Smart Viticultural Services , T. Stanislawski University of Arizona , A. Walker University of California, Davis.
Gratitude is also expressed to the many researchers, companies, institutes, and publishers who freely donated the photographs, data, diagrams, and figures reproduced in the book.
Finally, but not least, I must express my deepest appreciation to my wife, Suzanne Ouellet, for her unshakable support in the preparation of this work. Wine may have an archeological record going back more than 7.
McGovern et al. Other than the technical problems of confirming the presence of wine residues, there is the thorny issue of defining what is wine—is it any spontaneously fermented grape juice, or is the term to be restricted only to juice fermented and stored in a manner to retain its wine-like properties?
Clear evidence of intentional winemaking first appears in the representations of wine presses that date back to the reign of Udimu in Egypt, some years ago Petrie, Most researchers think that the discovery of winemaking, or at least its development, occurred in southern Caucasia.
This area includes parts of present-day northwestern Turkey, northern Iraq, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. It also is generally thought that the domestication of the wine grape Vitis vinifera ensued in the same area. It is here that the natural distribution of V. Although grapes readily ferment into wine, the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae apparently is not a major, indigenous member of the grape flora. The natural habitat of the ancestral strains of S.
If so, the habit of grapevines climbing up trees, such as oak, and the joint harvesting of grapes and acorns may have encouraged the inoculation of grapes and grape juice with S. The fortuitous overlap in the distribution of the progenitors of S. It may not be pure coincidence that most of the major yeast-fermented beverages and foods wine, beer, mead, and bread have their origins in the Near East.
The hypothesis of the Near Eastern origin and spread of winemaking is supported by the remarkable similarity between the words meaning wine in most Indo-European languages see Table 2. The spread of agriculture into Europe resulted from the dispersion of Caucasians speaking a Proto-Indo-European language Renfrew, In addition, most eastern Mediterranean myths locate the origin of winemaking in northeastern Asia Minor Stanislawski, Unlike the major cereal crops of the Near East wheat and barley , cultivated grapes develop an extensive yeast population by maturity, although rarely including the wine yeast S.
Piled unattended for several days, grape cells begin to self-ferment as oxygen becomes limiting. When the berries rupture, juice from the fruit is rapidly colonized by the yeast flora. These continue the conversion of fruit sugars into alcohol ethanol. Unless S. Unlike the native yeast population, S. The fermentation of the juice into wine is facilitated if the fruit is crushed first.
Crushing releases and mixes the juice with yeasts on the grape skins and associated equipment. Although yeast fermentation is more rapid in contact with oxygen, continued exposure to air favors the growth of bacteria, which can turn the wine into vinegar.
Although unacceptable as a beverage, vinegar so produced was probably a valuable commodity in its own right. As a source of acetic acid, vinegar expedited pottery production and the preservation pickling of perishable foods. Of the many fruits gathered by ancient humans, only grapes store carbohydrates predominantly in the form of soluble sugars. Thus, the major source of nutrients in grapes is in a form readily metabolized by wine yeasts.
Most other fleshy fruits store carbohydrates as starch and pectins, nutrients not fermentable by wine yeasts. The rapid production of ethanol by S. Consequently, wine yeasts generate conditions that essentially give them exclusive access to grape nutrients. Another unique property of grapes concerns the acids they contain. The major acid found in mature grapes is tartaric acid. This acid typically occurs only in small quantities in the vegetative parts of other plants but rarely if ever in fruit.
Because tartaric acid is metabolized by few microbes, fermented grape juice wine remains sufficiently acidic to limit the growth of most bacteria and fungi. In addition, the acidity gives wine much of its fresh taste. The combined action of grape acidity and the accumulation of ethanol suppresses the growth and metabolism of most potential wine-spoilage organisms. This property is enhanced in the absence of air oxygen. For ancient humans, the result of grape fermentation was the transformation of a perishable, periodically available fruit into a relatively stable beverage with novel and potentially intoxicating properties.
Unlike many crop plants, the grapevine has required little modification to adapt it to cultivation. Its mineral and water requirements are low, permitting it to flourish on soils and hill sites unsuitable for other food crops.
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Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Corpus ID: Effect of location of cultivar, fermentation temperature and additives on the physico-chemical and sensory qualities on mahua Madhuca indica J. Garg and D. Garg , D.
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By Ronald S. Catherines, Ontario, Canada. Front cover photographs: Left Vitis vinifera f.
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Wine Science, Third Edition , covers the three pillars of wine science - grape culture, wine production, and sensory evaluation. It takes readers on a scientific tour into the world of wine by detailing the latest discoveries in this exciting industry. From grape anatomy to wine and health, this book includes coverage of material not found in other enology or viticulture texts including details on cork and oak, specialized wine making procedures, and historical origins of procedures.
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Wine Science, Fourth Edition, covers the three pillars of wine science: grape culture, wine production, and sensory evaluation.Reply
Third Edition. Wine. Science. Principles and. Applications. Ronald S. Jackson, PhD. AMSTERDAM Publications/specialreports/rnasystemsbiology.org Agüero, C. B.Reply
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