File Name: individualism and collectivism theory .zip
Average levels of loneliness have been suggested to differ between collectivistic and individualistic countries. However, we know little about how individual-level collectivism i. As individualism and collectivism imply different ideals about how individuals should be embedded in social relationships, they may imply distinct risks for loneliness. Specifically, less demanding ideals in individualism should imply the risk of lower actual social embeddedness; more demanding ideals in collectivism should imply the risk of higher perceived discrepancies from such ideals. Individualism indeed implied lower social embeddedness, but collectivism did not imply higher discrepancies from ideal embeddedness. We discuss implications for reducing loneliness in different cultural contexts.
William B. Individualism-collectivism has a direct effect on communication styles and an indirect effect that is mediated through self construals and values. As predicted, the results of this study suggest that independent self construals and individualistic values mediate the influence of cultural individualism-collectivism on the use of low-context communication, and interdependent self construals and collectivistic values mediate the influence of cultural individualism-collectivism on the use of high-context communication. The patterns for cultural individualism-collectivism were not as clear-cut. The findings suggest that individual level factors i.
Performance feedback theory PFT has informed analyses in numerous national contexts and has been used to explain various business and management activities of firms. Stemming from behavioral theory and grounded in a cognitive perspective, which views organizational actions as being the results of decisions produced by groups of individual decision-makers, PFT research has mostly assumed the universal nature of cognition and decision-making processes. However, PFT also presumes that individual decision-makers bring with them different backgrounds and experiences. Hence, this paper offers propositions on how cultural differences in individualism-collectivism influence the major components of PFT, including the formation and revision of performance goals aspiration levels , and search behaviors and risk preferences in response to gaps between goals and actual performance. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
A theoretical framework using the independent and interdependent concepts of selves at its core is presented to explain the differences between.
When workforces become culturally diverse, organizations should modify HRM practices to enable the full use of the range of skills and talents available from the diversity, and to ensure affective and behavioral costs are minimized. The model provides a useful basis upon which organization researchers and practitioners can base their respective agendas. Fujimoto, Y.
Collectivism is a value that is characterized by emphasis on cohesiveness among individuals and prioritization of the group over the self. Individuals or groups that subscribe to a collectivist worldview tend to find common values and goals as particularly salient  and demonstrate greater orientation toward in-group than toward out-group. An anthropologist, Redfield echoed this notion in work contrasting folk society with urban society. Max Weber contrasted collectivism and individualism through the lens of religion, believing that Protestants were more individualistic and self-reliant compared to Catholics, who endorsed hierarchical, interdependent relationships among people. Hofstede conceptualized collectivism and individualism as part of a single continuum, with each cultural construct representing an opposite pole.
Мы к нему не прикасались. Мой друг испугался. Он хоть и крупный, но слабак. - Она кокетливо улыбнулась Беккеру. - Не волнуйтесь, он ни слова не понимает по-испански.
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This study investigated whether individualism and collectivism IC at country, individual, and situational level influence how quickly and accurately people can infer mental states i.Reply