File Name: iron and steel making process .zip
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The improved plant performance gives rise to the higher quality improvement and lower cost, and simultaneously environmental friendly plant operation. The control systems and field instruments are working at the various processes of the iron and steel plant. The process of iron and steel plant is starting from Sinter plant, Coke oven etc, and the blast furnace, iron pre-treatment are following. Under such circumstances efficient operation is achieved by such measures as increasing the calorie value of fuel gas and recovering waste heat from gas. To further improve combustion efficiency and save energy, measurement of the oxygen concentration in exhaust gases is required. The measurement of oxygen concentration in the furnace is essential.
Humans have been making iron and steel for centuries. Steel fuelled the industrial revolution and remains the backbone of modern industrialized economies. This article briefly explains how iron and steel are made. Separate articles discuss how the material is converted into steel construction products and the basic material properties of steel that are used in design. As early as 6, years ago, early civilizations used iron ore found in meteorites to construct primitive tools.
Iron is most widely found in the crust of the earth, in the form of various minerals oxides, hydrated ores, carbonates, sulphides, silicates and so on. Since prehistoric times, humans have learned to prepare and process these minerals by various washing, crushing and screening operations, by separating the gangue, calcining, sintering and pelletizing, in order to render the ores smeltable and to obtain iron and steel. In historic times, a prosperous iron industry developed in many countries, based on local supplies of ore and the proximity of forests to supply the charcoal for fuel. Early in the 18th century, the discovery that coke could be used in place of charcoal revolutionized the industry, making possible its rapid development as the base on which all other developments of the Industrial Revolution rested. Great advantages accrued to those countries where natural deposits of coal and iron ore lay close together. Steel making was largely a development of the 19th century, with the invention of melting processes; the Bessemer , the open hearth, usually fired by producer gas ; and the electric furnace Since the middle of the 20th century, oxygen conversion, pre-eminently the Linz-Donowitz LD process by oxygen lance, has made it possible to manufacture high quality steel with relatively low production costs.
The process of turning raw product into finished stainless steel is a lengthy one, but it can be simplified into six steps. To create pure steel, the products that go into it- lime, coke and iron ore- must be made into iron. These are all put into a blast furnace and melted down to create what is called molten iron or hot metal. The iron still has many impurities at this point, and they will have to be removed to ensure the metal is not brittle. To get the impurities out, the molten metal is infused with scrap steel. Oxygen will be forced through the furnace as well, which gets out a lot of the carbon and other impurities.
Steel production is a hour-a-day, day-a-year process, dependent on a consistent supply of raw materials and huge amounts of energy. High demand for iron ore, coke and scrap steel, increasing energy costs, and industry consolidation have prompted steel producers to develop new methods for gaining efficiency to remain competitive. The production methods using raw materials have improved significantly over the past decade, and scrap-based production is accounting for a larger portion of the total steel supply. Steel is made primarily in a two-step process. Secondary steelmaking is a refining process in which alloying metals are added and impurities are removed. Check out this infographic for an overview of the products that make each stage of the iron and steel manufacturing process possible , from incoming raw materials to the final coating line. Want to know more about steel, Anu?
Skip to content. All Homes Search Contact. At high temperatures, oxygen is blown through the metal, which reduces the carbon content to between This is a brief history of iron and steel production from its earliest origins through the 20th century, with a special focus on the career of Andrew Carnegie and on the economic impact of cheap and abundant steel. The industry produced 29 million metric tons of pig iron and 88 million tons of steel.
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Все ждали, когда Соши откроет нужный раздел. - Вот, - сказала. - Стоп. - И быстро пробежала глазами информацию. Здесь имелась масса всяческих сведений.
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The primary processes covered by this Note are sinter production, pelletising, blast furnace iron making, desulphurisation, basic oxygen and electric arc steel.Reply
In steelmaking, impurities such as nitrogen , silicon , phosphorus , sulfur and excess carbon most important impurity are removed from the sourced iron, and alloying elements such as manganese , nickel , chromium , carbon and vanadium are added to produce different grades of steel.Reply