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Please help us to share our service with your friends. Share Embed Donate. His areas of interest include structural analysis, structural reliability and wind engineering. Das is a registered professional engineer in Ohio and Georgia. But, only a limited number of examples can be presented in the classroom due to time constraint, despite the fact that such examples are necessary to reinforce important engineering concepts. The purpose of this paper is to present a computer-based problem-solving courseware that has been developed to complement traditional lecture-format delivery of the structural analysis course in order to enhance student learning.
The courseware consists of interactive, web-based modules. Commercial symbolic-manipulation software e. Examples to illustrate the computer program modules are also included in this paper.
Besides allowing for faster solution of a problem, the tool is useful for experimentation with parameter changes as well as graphical visualization. Thus it will promote learning by discovery, instead of leaving the student in the role of a passive observer. Introduction With the objective of enhanced student learning, various instructional technology methods including computer-aided problem-solving modules have been integrated into the curriculum for civil engineering and civil engineering technology programs.
More specifically, the effective incorporation of a variety of software packages for the teaching-learning process related to the structural analysis course has been addressed in several articles1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 in recent years.
Analysis of both statically determinate and statically indeterminate structures, by classical methods slope-deflection and moment distribution and stiffness method, using EXCEL, MATLAB and Mathcad10, have been covered in those articles.
However, it appears that such supplementary packages lack in certain aspects in coverage of the topic of influence lines for beams under moving loads, and thus an enhancement is worthwhile. The purpose of this paper is to present a simple and effective approach used by the author to facilitate both teaching and learning of this important topic of structural analysis incorporating the use of Mathcad software.
Moving Loads and Influence Lines For analysis of structures subject to moving loads, the concept of influence lines is indispensable. An influence line is a graph of a response function of a structure as a function of the position of a downward unit load moving across the structure. The response function can be support reaction, shear or moment or deflection at a specific point in a member. The influence line can be constructed by placing the unit load at a variable position x on the member and then computing the value of reaction, shear, moment etc.
The well-known Muller-Breslau principle can be used to facilitate drawing qualitative influence lines. Once the influence line of a function is established, the maximum effect caused by a live concentrated load is determined by multiplying the peak ordinate of the influence line by the magnitude of the load. To determine the maximum effect caused by a series of concentrated loads such as wheel loads of a truck , a trial-and-error method can be used by placing each load at the specific point of interest.
The critical loading is the one that causes the largest effect shear, moment etc. The absolute maximum moment occurs under one of the concentrated loads in a beam, such that this critical load and the resultant of the concentrated load series are equidistant from the beam centerline.
These basic concepts related to moving loads and influence lines can be found in any standard textbook on structural analysis11,12, Advantages of Mathcad Mathcad, an industry-standard calculation software, is used because it is as versatile and powerful as programming languages, yet it is as easy to learn as a spreadsheet.
Additionally, it is linked to the Internet and other applications one uses everyday. In Mathcad, an expression or an equation looks the same way as one would see it in a textbook, and there is no difficult syntax to learn. Aside from looking the usual way, the expressions can be evaluated or the equations can be used to solve just about any mathematics problem one can think of.
In addition, graphics taken from another Windows application can also be used for illustration purpose. Through a combination of equations, text, and graphics in a single worksheet, keeping track of the most complex calculations becomes easy.
Program Features The program developed by the author will require input data pertaining to the geometry of the problem, and the loading. More specifically, the following information is required as input data: beam span; number, magnitudes and locations of concentrated loads; location of the specific point of interest where maximum shear or maximum moment is desired; and number of divisions for plotting the influence lines..
Based on the input data, calculations are carried out in the following steps: 1. Calculate the influence line ordinates at equal intervals along the length of the beam for shear at a specific point in the beam Calculate the influence line ordinates at equal intervals along the length of the beam for moment at a specific point in the beam Calculate the shear at a specific point in the beam by placing each load at that location in turn; the largest value represents the maximum shear at that point.
Calculate the moment at a specific point in the beam by placing each load at that location in turn; the largest value represents the maximum moment at that point. Calculate the maximum moment under each load by placing each of the concentrated loads and their resultant equidistant from the beam.
The largest value represents the absolute maximum moment in the beam occurring under one of those loads. Student Assignment and Assessment of Performance The author provided an abridged version of the program limited to loads moving from right to left to his class.
A list of variables used in the program and the program code are given in the Appendix. The students were asked to modify the program such that loads moving from left to right can be solved.
The students were allowed to work in groups of 3 or 4. After the modifications were done, students had to validate their program using two problems of known solutions. A quiz was given to the class to test their knowledge of Mathcad programming as well as concept of influence lines. To further extend the efficacy of the program developed, it can be placed on course web site to allow the students full access to this useful supplementary educational material.
Example Problems Two example problems with their solutions obtained by using the program are given below. For any of these problems, one or more input data change would translate to change in the influence line ordinate values, and hence the maximum values of shear and moment as well.
Any number of combinations of input data is possible and students can see the effects of these changes instantaneously. Moreover, with further additions to the program, it would be feasible to include other types of beams e. Example 1: Determine the maximum positive shear created at point C on the beam shown due to the wheel loads of the moving truck. Please fill this form, we will try to respond as soon as possible.
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INFLUENCE LINES IN. TRUSSES I BASIC CONCEPTS UACG BG. CHAPTER 5. INFLUENCE LINES FOR TRUSSES JIM RICHARDSON. STRUCTURAL.
In engineering, an influence line graphs the variation of a function such as the shear felt in a structure member at a specific point on a beam or truss caused by a unit load placed at any point along the structure. Influence lines are both scalar and additive. To find the effect of any non-unit load on a structure, the ordinate results obtained by the influence line are multiplied by the magnitude of the actual load to be applied.
Definition- An influence line for a member is a graph representing the variation of internal force reaction, shear, moment, or deflection in a fixed section of the member, due to a unit load traversing a structure. The deflected shape due to a unit displacement at A is shown in Figure 2 and matches with the actual influence line shape as shown in Figure 3. Note that the deflected shape is linear , i. This is true only for statically determinate systems. If UDL is rolling on the beam from one end to other end then there are two possibilities.
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With the help of influence line diagram, find the shear force at 3m from the left support. Determine these values.
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Chapter 9. Influence Lines for Statically Determinate Structures. Structures such as bridges and overhead cranes must be designed to resist moving loads as well as their own weight. Since structures are designed for the critical loads that may occur in them, influence lines are used to obtain the position on a structure where a moving load will cause the largest stress. Influence lines can be defined as a graph whose ordinates show the variation of the magnitude of a certain response function of a structure as a unit load traverses across the structure. Response functions of a structure may include axial forces in members, support reactions, bending moments, shear forces, and deflection at specific points in the structure.
loads. Muller Breslau‟s principle – Influence lines for continuous beams and statically determinate structured under the effects of moving loads (live loads).
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