File Name: surfactant types and uses .zip
Surfactants are one of many different compounds that make up a detergent. They are added to remove dirt from skin, clothes and household articles particularly in kitchens and bathrooms. They are also used extensively in industry. The term surfactant comes from the words surface active agent. Figure 1 Surfactants aid the effective washing of dirty rugby kit using low temperature wash cycles, resulting in environmental benefits. They also hold these oils and dirt in suspension, and so allow their removal. They are able to act in this way because they contain both a hydrophilic water loving group, such as an acid anion, -CO 2 - or SO 3 - and a hydrophobic water hating group, such as an alkyl chain.
So, how do surfactants work? Some surfactants possess an electrical charge on their hydrophilic water-loving moiety, and based on the identity of the electrical charge s — or lack of — surfactants are categorized within one of the four main classes including:. The type of surfactant chosen for a certain application heavily depends on the inherent solution properties and the intended end-use. Many of these compounds provide exceptional properties to a formulation for specific market, including low-foaming cleansers, rapid-wetting properties, water soluble compounds, and emulsification for water insoluble compounds. Choosing the correct surfactant for your end-use application is a daunting task, but once you fully understand the differences between the four types of surfactants and how each surfactant works, the task of choosing the correct molecule s becomes much easier. A nonionic surfactant is a type of surfactant that does not carry a charge on its hydrophilic head group and is therefore milder in nature. Due to the mildness associated with nonionic surfactants, they are commonly used throughout the home and personal care markets, as well as the agrochemical industry.
Surfactants are a primary component of cleaning detergents. The word surfactant means surface active agent. As the name implies, surfactants stir up activity on the surface you are cleaning to help trap dirt and remove it from the surface. Surfactants have a hydrophobic water-hating tail and a hydrophilic water-loving head. The hydrophobic tail of each surfactant surrounds soils. The hydrophilic head is surrounded by water. When there are a sufficient amount of surfactant molecules present in a solution they combine together to form structures called micelles.
Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension or interfacial tension between two liquids, between a gas and a liquid, or between a liquid and a solid. Surfactants may act as detergents , wetting agents, emulsifiers , foaming agents , or dispersants. The word "surfactant" is a blend of surf ace- act ive a ge nt ,  coined c. Agents that increase surface tension are "surface active" in the literal sense but are not called surfactants since their effect is opposite to the common meaning. A common example of surface tension increase is salting out : by adding an inorganic salt to an aqueous solution of a weakly polar substance, the substance will precipitate. The substance may itself be a surfactant - this is one of the reasons why many surfactants are ineffective in sea water.
These negatively charged parts of the molecules are usually sulfonates, sulfates, or carboxylates that are usually neutralized by positively charged metal cations such as sodium or potassium. Examples include sodium alkylbenzene sulfonates, sodium stearate a soap , and potassium alcohol sulfates. Anionic surfactants are ionic and are made up of two ions positively charged, usually metal, ion and a negatively charged organic ion. They derive their polarity from having an oxygen—rich portion of the molecule at one end and a large organic molecule at the other end.
Surfactants are a primary component of cleaning detergents. The word surfactant means surface active agent.
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Interaction between cationic and conventional nonionic surfactants in the mixed micelle and monolayer formed in aqueous medium. Nabel A. El Sabagh. Mixed micellization and surface properties of cationic and nonionic surfactants dimethyl decyl-, tetradecyl- and hexadecyl phosphineoxide mixtures are studied using conductivity and surface tension measurements. The models of Rubingh, Rosen, and Clint, are used to obtain the interaction parameter, minimum area per molecule, mixed micelle composition, free energies of mixing and activity coefficients. The micellar mole fractions were always higher than ideal values indicating high contributions of cationics in mixed micelles.
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