wars between india and pakistan pdf

Wars between india and pakistan pdf

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Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts

A Look into the Conflict Between India and Pakistan over Kashmir

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Milestones: 1961–1968

This policy brief examines the work of civil society activists in India and Pakistan and explains how the social media strategies of civil society activists can ease the risk of war and violence and improve the prospect for long-term peaceful relations between both countries. Having experienced four wars between and , peace efforts on the part of civil society activists have existed for many years.

Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts

The region of Kashmir is one of the most volatile areas in the world. The nations of India and Pakistan have fiercely contested each other over Kashmir, fighting three major wars and two minor wars.

It has gained immense international attention given the fact that both India and Pakistan are nuclear powers and this conflict represents a threat to global security.

To understand this conflict, it is essential to look back into the history of the area. In August of , India and Pakistan were on the cusp of independence from the British. The British India Empire was made up of multiple princely states states that were allegiant to the British but headed by a monarch along with states directly headed by the British.

At the time of the partition, princely states had the right to choose whether they were to cede to India or Pakistan. In general, the Muslim majority states went to Pakistan while the Hindu majority states went to India, although India was a secular nation.

However, Kashmir was a peculiar case. However, this was not the only such case. The state of Junagadh was also faced with such a conflict. The ruler of Junagadh [2] was a Muslim, who wished to accede to Pakistan, against the wishes of his people. Mountbatten recommended that Junagadh should go to India not only because it was a largely populated state but also because it was completely surrounded by India.

However, the ruler ceded to Pakistan. India, enraged, annexed Junagadh on the pretext that the Pakistani Prime minister Muhammed Ali Jinnah stated that Hindus and Muslims could not live in one nation and because they feared riots [3].

However, when it came to the region of Kashmir, the situation unfolded differently. Although Kashmir was a Muslim majority state headed by a Hindu ruler, Mountbatten recommended that Kashmir should go to India.

But Hari Singh decided that Kashmir would be independent, at least for a while, because he feared that the Kashmiri Muslims would not be happy with India while the Hindus and Sikhs would not be happy in Pakistan [5]. During this period of ambivalence in Kashmir, there were outbursts of riots in certain districts of Kashmir against the ruler. This eventually led to Pakistani tribesmen and militia crossing into Kashmir, in an attempt to take over the city of Srinagar, whilst looting and plundering the region [6].

Hari Singh made a plea to India to aid him against this anarchy and in doing so ceded Kashmir to India. In , Pakistani armed forces entered the war. Towards the end of , both sides solidified their positions in Kashmir. A ceasefire agreement was made and a line of control LOC was established [7]. India was left with roughly two-thirds of Kashmir, while Pakistan obtained control over a third of the region of Kashmir.

This marked the first of the many wars and conflicts between these two nations over Kashmir. The establishment of the LOC in , however, was insufficient. The United Nations then played the role of the mediator. On the 21 st of April, , the Security Council passed and adopted resolution 47 [8]. A commission of five members this commission was initially established by resolution 39 was to go to the Indian subcontinent and aid India and Pakistan in restoring peace in Kashmir.

A three-step process was also recommended to ease tensions:. India accepted this resolution. However, Pakistan rejected it. This led to no withdrawal of troops and no referendum being held. Further International negotiations were attempted in the form of the Dixon plan among others. However, these too failed as every time either India or Pakistan rejected the terms. The primary reason for this conflict between the two nations is due to how valuable Kashmir is in terms of national security, geography and resources [9].

The largely important Indus River flows through Kashmir. The Indus River is extremely crucial to agriculture in Pakistan. It is especially important in the lower Indus valley region, where rainfall is uncommon.

Similarly, India depends on the Indus for irrigation. Hence, the Indus and its tributaries are highly sought after. The nation that controls this region effectively can cut off the water supply to the other.

To manage these fears and ensure a fair distribution of the water from this river, the Indus Water Treaty [10] came into existence on the 19 th of September, Under this treaty, India has control over the eastern tributaries of Beas, Ravi and Sutlej, while Pakistan has control over the western rivers of Indus, Chenab and Jhelum.

However, while this treaty is in place, Pakistan still fears that in a potential conflict, India could cut off the supply, since they control the region of Kashmir through which the Indus flows. But it is important to note that in the previous wars, India did not choke off the water supply.

Additionally, the glaciers provide immense amounts of freshwater to the region [11]. The Kashmiri Rivers and water bodies also have the potential to generate hydroelectricity at great magnitudes.

The state of Jammu and Kashmir largely depends on hydroelectricity for its power demands. At the moment, Kashmir only produces around megawatts of electricity.

However, the region has the potential to produce up to 16, megawatts of power. The Indian administration is looking to tap into this, making Kashmir an important region. The region is also home to a plethora of resources such as uranium, gold, oil and natural gas. From a geopolitical standpoint, Kashmir is vital as well.

Kashmir serves as a bridge between South Asia and Central Asia. It plays a key role in the Belt and Road initiative. The CPEC is a large-scale bilateral undertaking involving the development of infrastructure in Pakistan, the establishment of transportation networks between China and Pakistan and the creation of numerous energy projects. Many of these projects run through the Pakistan administered Kashmir. Pakistan aims at directly connecting itself with both Central Asia and China through Kashmir.

Kashmir is a central piece between three nuclear nations: India, Pakistan and China. According to India, Kashmir in its entirety belongs to India, and both Pakistan and China are falsely laying claim on Indian territories.

India views the instrument of accession that was signed by Maharaja Hari Singh as legally binding, hence legally and fairly giving India Kashmir. India does not have access to Central Asian and European countries directly through the land without it. The Siachen Glacier is the only barrier between Pakistan and China.

In the face of a conflict, without Kashmir, China and Pakistan could combine forces, gravely endangering India. Additionally, in , Pakistan ceded the Shaksgam valley and Gilgitto China. This region was originally a part of Pakistan administered Kashmir [14]. Some claim that this was done in order to undermine India and in order to allow Chinese military presence in Kashmir. While India does not accept this, it is nonetheless threatened.

With China and Pakistan strengthening ties, increasing Chinese and Pakistani troops has made this region increasingly important. There has also been a surge of Indian nationalism lately, especially with the nationalist Bhartiya Janata Party coming to power in with Prime Minister Narendra Modi at the helm [15].

Since the inception of the state of Jammu and Kashmir, the region and India have faced numerous terrorist attacks, both by outside terrorist groups and by local insurgents. In , insurgents from this region along with terrorists from outside attacked the Indian Parliament, killing many. There have been many incidents such as this.

The result of this has been the deaths of thousands of civilians and Indian soldiers. This has led to feelings of resentment amongst the Indian people. Since many of these terrorists have their camps in Pakistan, this anger is directed towards Pakistan [16].

The Indian people have been longing for these deaths to stop and for the government to decisively deal with these acts of terror. The Indian people have also developed feelings of anger and resentment towards primarily Pakistan but also China for illegally taking over their territory. They believe Kashmir in its entirety belongs to India and severe action must be taken. Historically, Pakistan believes that Kashmir was illegitimately ceded to India by a ruler who did not represent the people. Additionally, since a majority of the Muslim majority states went to Pakistan, they believe Kashmir should belong to them.

However, Kashmir is also important to Pakistan for strategic reasons [17]. As mentioned, Kashmir has a plethora of resources. Moreover, Pakistan is largely dependent on the Kashmiri Rivers. If India has complete control over Kashmir, it could potentially paralyze Pakistani agriculture and induce droughts.

Kashmir is the only direct link between Pakistan and China. China being a strong ally makes this important, both for military reasons and for economic development.

Losing Kashmir would deny this direct link to Pakistan. This direct link with China has been largely beneficial in terms of economic development.

Additionally, if India has complete control over Kashmir, India could move a large number of troops to the edge of the border, posing a large threat to Pakistani security. Losing Kashmir would not only cut off access to help from China but also have Indian troops present very close to important cities in Pakistan. This could prove devastating in the time of conflict.

Hence, Pakistan believes they will be at the mercy of India if Kashmir is lost. The general view of the people on this issue seems to be against India. However, there is a sizable population that is rather tired of this conflict and criticized the government for investing a lot of its resources in the Kashmiri conflict. The Pakistani administration has maintained the view that Pakistan cannot lose Kashmir.

They maintain that India has no legal or moral right over Kashmir and that Kashmir is rightly theirs.

A Look into the Conflict Between India and Pakistan over Kashmir

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of the conflict between India and Pakistan is the issue of Kashmir. This conflict France and Germany too have had a history of waging wars against each other.


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Since the Partition of British India in and subsequent creation of the dominions of India and Pakistan , the two countries have been involved in a number of wars, conflicts, and military standoffs. A long-running dispute over Kashmir and cross-border terrorism have been the predominant cause of conflict between the two states, with the exception of the Indo-Pakistani War of , which occurred as a direct result of hostilities stemming from the Bangladesh Liberation War in erstwhile East Pakistan now Bangladesh. The Partition of India came about in the aftermath of World War II , when both Great Britain and British India were dealing with the economic stresses caused by the war and its demobilisation.

With continued violence in Kashmir and a heightened threat of terrorist activity by Pakistan-based militant groups, tensions and concerns over a serious military confrontation between nuclear-armed neighbors India and Pakistan remain high. In August , following a deployment of tens of thousands of additional troops and paramilitary forces to the region, the Indian government moved to revoke Article of the Indian constitution, removing the special status of Jammu and Kashmir. India-administered Kashmir remains under lockdown , with internet and phone services intermittently cutoff and thousands of people detained.

Milestones: 1961–1968

The war between India and Pakistan was the second conflict between the two countries over the status of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The clash did not resolve this dispute, but it did engage the United States and the Soviet Union in ways that would have important implications for subsequent superpower involvement in the region. The dispute over this region originated in the process of decolonization in South Asia.

The region of Kashmir is one of the most volatile areas in the world. The nations of India and Pakistan have fiercely contested each other over Kashmir, fighting three major wars and two minor wars. It has gained immense international attention given the fact that both India and Pakistan are nuclear powers and this conflict represents a threat to global security. To understand this conflict, it is essential to look back into the history of the area. In August of , India and Pakistan were on the cusp of independence from the British. The British India Empire was made up of multiple princely states states that were allegiant to the British but headed by a monarch along with states directly headed by the British. At the time of the partition, princely states had the right to choose whether they were to cede to India or Pakistan.

The relations between the two countries have been complex and largely hostile due to a number of historical and political events.

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