what is the argument an introduction to philosophical argument and analysis pdf

What is the argument an introduction to philosophical argument and analysis pdf

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[A01] What is an argument?

Good writing is the product of proper training, much practice, and hard work. The following remarks, though they will not guarantee a top quality paper, should help you determine where best to direct your efforts. I offer first some general comments on philosophical writing, and then some specific "do"s and "don't"s.

Arguments offer proof for a claim, or conclusion. Quite often the arguments have two or more premises and require multiple inferential steps to reach the conclusion. We will encounter examples of more elaborate arguments in the section 1. If we are not convinced by an argument, our pursuit, as students of philosophy, is to devise an objection or rebuttal argument to demonstrate that the original argument is defective.

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Is it Persuasive? In The Republic , Plato argues that kings should become philosophers or that philosophers should become kings, or philosopher kings, as they possess a special level of knowledge, which is required to rule the Republic successfully. To deal with the problem of justice, Plato considers the ideal polis, a collective unit of self-government, and the relationship between the structure of the Republic and the attainment of justice. Plato argues that philosopher kings should be the rulers, as all philosophers aim to discover the ideal polis. Although theoretically it would be ideal if the Republic and the modern state were ruled by knowledge, and not power, power is crucial in the make-up of political activity.

When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. This resource describes how to construct an argument using the Toulmin method, a model for argumentation developed by Stephen Toulmin in the s. Developed by philosopher Stephen E. Toulmin, the Toulmin method is a style of argumentation that breaks arguments down into six component parts: claim, grounds, warrant, qualifier, rebuttal, and backing.

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Ordinary language argument examples are explained and diagrammed. Formal arguments are evaluated by their logical structure; informal arguments are studied and evaluated as parts of ordinary language and interpersonal discourse. Generally speaking, these reasons are presented as verbal reports. The reasons might not always be initially presented in declarative sentences, but in context must have their meaning preserved by translation or paraphrase into a statement or proposition. Comment : Notice that statements [2] and [3] work together as a reason, so both together provide evidence for [1].

The ultimate court of appeal is observation and experiment In everyday life, people often use "argument" to mean a quarrel between people. But in logic and critical thinking, an argument is a list of statements, one of which is the conclusion and the others are the premises or assumptions of the argument. To give an argument is to provide a set of premises as reasons for accepting the conclusion. To give an argument is not necessarily to attack or criticize someone. Arguments can also be used to support other people's viewpoints.

[A01] What is an argument?

Two competing conceptions of fallacies are that they are false but popular beliefs and that they are deceptively bad arguments. These we may distinguish as the belief and argument conceptions of fallacies. Academic writers who have given the most attention to the subject of fallacies insist on, or at least prefer, the argument conception of fallacies, but the belief conception is prevalent in popular and non-scholarly discourse. As we shall see, there are yet other conceptions of what fallacies are, but the present inquiry focuses on the argument conception of fallacies.

Ontological argument

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What is the Toulmin Method?

Это был Чатрукьян. Он снова постучал. У него был такой вид, будто он только что увидел Армагеддон. Хейл сердито посмотрел на обезумевшего сотрудника лаборатории систем безопасности и обратился к Сьюзан: - Я сейчас вернусь. Выпей воды. Ты очень бледна.

Plato’s Argument for Rule by Philosopher Kings

Но чего еще можно было ждать от Танкадо - что он сохранит кольцо для них, будучи уверенным в том, что они-то его и убили.

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