File Name: map of jammu and kashmir .zip
Jammu and Kashmir [a] was a region formerly administered by India as a state from to , constituting the southern and southeastern portion of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of a dispute between India, Pakistan and China since the midth century. The Aksai Chin region in the east, bordering Tibet , has been under Chinese control since After the Government of India repealed the special status accorded to Jammu and Kashmir under Article of the Indian constitution in , the Parliament of India passed the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act , which contained provisions that dissolved the state and reorganised it into two union territories — Jammu and Kashmir in the west and Ladakh in the east, with effect from 31 October
Jammu and Kashmir [a] was a region formerly administered by India as a state from to , constituting the southern and southeastern portion of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of a dispute between India, Pakistan and China since the midth century. The Aksai Chin region in the east, bordering Tibet , has been under Chinese control since After the Government of India repealed the special status accorded to Jammu and Kashmir under Article of the Indian constitution in , the Parliament of India passed the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act , which contained provisions that dissolved the state and reorganised it into two union territories — Jammu and Kashmir in the west and Ladakh in the east, with effect from 31 October The Indian-administered territories elected a constituent assembly in , which ratified the accession of the state to India in In —57, China constructed a road through the disputed Aksai Chin area of Ladakh.
India's belated discovery of this road culminated in the Sino-Indian War of ; China has since administered Aksai Chin. In the late s, discontent over the high-handed policies of the union government and allegations of the rigging of the Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly election  triggered a violent uprising and armed insurgency   which was backed by Pakistan.
Since , a prolonged, bloody conflict between the Islamic militant separatists and the Indian Army took place, both of whom have been accused of widespread human rights abuses , including abductions, massacres, rapes and armed robbery. This was facilitated by a large influx of Islamic "Jihadi" fighters mujahadeen who had entered the Kashmir valley following the end of the Soviet—Afghan War in the s.
Following the Kashmir unrest , secessionist movements in the region were boosted. Responsibility for the attack was claimed by a Pakistan-backed militant group Jaish-e-Mohammed. In August , both houses of the Parliament of India passed resolutions to amend Article and extend the Constitution of India in its entirety to the state, which was implemented as a constitutional order by the President of India.
The reorganisation act was assented to by the President of India , and came into effect on 31 October The state of Jammu and Kashmir consisted of three divisions : the Jammu Division , the Kashmir Division and Ladakh which are further divided into 22 districts. Jammu and Kashmir was the only state in India with a Muslim -majority population.
The proportion of population that practised Islam fell to The state's official language was Urdu , which occupied a central space in media, education, religious and political discourses and the legislature of Jammu and Kashmir; the language functioned as a symbol of identity among Muslims of South Asia.
Additionally, several other languages, predominantly found in neighbouring regions, are also spoken by communities within Jammu and Kashmir: Bhattiyali , Chambeali , Churahi , Gaddi , Hindko , Lahul Lohar , Pangwali , Pattani , Sansi , and Shina. Jammu and Kashmir was the only state in India which had special autonomy under Article of the Constitution of India , according to which no law enacted by the Parliament of India , except for those in the field of defence, communication and foreign policy, would be extendable in Jammu and Kashmir unless it was ratified by the state legislature of Jammu and Kashmir.
Jammu and Kashmir was the only Indian state to have its own official state flag , along with India's national flag ,  in addition to a separate constitution.
Designed by the then ruling National Conference, the flag of Jammu and Kashmir featured a plough on a red background symbolising labour; it replaced the Maharaja's state flag.
The three stripes represented the three distinct administrative divisions of the state, namely Jammu, Valley of Kashmir, and Ladakh. Like all the states of India, Jammu and Kashmir had a multi-party democratic system of governance and had a bicameral legislature. At the time of drafting the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir, seats were earmarked for direct elections from territorial constituencies. Of these, 25 seats were reserved for the areas of Jammu and Kashmir state that came under Pakistani control; this was reduced to 24 after the 12th amendment of the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir.
In , an Armed Forces Special Powers Act of India, which gave special powers to the Indian security forces, including the detaining of individuals for up to two years without presenting charges, was enforced in Jammu and Kashmir,   a decision which drew criticism from Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International for violating human rights. The economy of Jammu and Kashmir was predominantly dependent on agriculture and related activities.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Former state administered by India. This article is about the former state. For the current union territory, see Jammu and Kashmir union territory.
For the former princely state, see Jammu and Kashmir princely state. Bhadrawahi 0. Gojri 9. Hindi 2. Pahari 7. Kashmiri Siraji 0. Punjabi 1. Bauti 0. Purkhi 0. Others 4. Geography portal Asia portal India portal. The Hindu. Archived from the original on 10 November Retrieved 23 February The Economic Times. Press Trust of India. Archived from the original on 23 August Retrieved 31 August Retrieved 19 June The state is part of the larger region of Kashmir, which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan, and China since the partition of the subcontinent in It has borders with Pakistan and China.
The Times of India. Retrieved 5 August Archived from the original on 5 October Retrieved 16 November Retrieved 12 January Archived from the original on 26 January Retrieved 6 January BBC News.
Archived from the original on 22 February Retrieved 10 April Archived from the original on 21 February Retrieved 22 February The Daily Telegraph. The New York Times. Archived from the original on 31 December Retrieved 21 February Business Standard.
Archived from the original on 5 June Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on 22 May Retrieved 2 June Archived from the original on 9 May Militant Abuses".
Archived from the original on 27 May Archived from the original on 18 December Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 25 March Retrieved 31 December Archived from the original on 24 November The Pandits have preserved the threat letters sent to them. They have the audio and video evidence to show what happened. They have preserved the local newspapers through which they were warned to leave the Valley within 48 hours. This evidence also include still photographs of Pandits killed by militants and the desecrated temples.
The Indian News. Archived from the original on 22 March A year-old pregnant Gujjar woman has told police at the Baderwah Police Station in Jammu and Kashmir's Doda District that she was repeatedly gang raped by Lashkar-e-Toiba militants for two months.
Notices are pasted on doors of Pandit houses, peremptorily asking the occupants to leave Kashmir within 24 hours or face death and worse Pandit Sarwanand Premi, year-old poet, and his son were kidnapped, tortured, their eyes gouged out, and hanged to death.
Another woman was abducted, raped and sliced into bits and pieces at a sawmill. Online edition of The Times of India, dated 17 August Archived from the original on 3 January Retrieved 28 January Archived from the original on 5 May Retrieved 5 May Archived from the original on 2 February Retrieved 27 January
Jammu and Kashmir [b] is a region administered by India as a union territory and consists of the southern portion of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of a dispute between India and Pakistan since , and between India and China since It lies to the north of the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab and to the west of Ladakh , which is also subject to the dispute as a part of Kashmir, and administered by India as a union territory. Provisions for the formation of the union territory of Jammu and Kashmir were contained within the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, , which was passed by both houses of the Parliament of India in August The act re-constituted the former state of Jammu and Kashmir into two union territories, 'Jammu and Kashmir' and 'Ladakh', with effect from 31 October Jammu and Kashmir is named after the two regions it encompasses — the Jammu region and the Kashmir Valley. The state of Jammu and Kashmir was accorded special status by Article of the Constitution of India.
Culture BLM. Black Music. Panorama of Tso Kar, a lake about km south of Ladakh's main town of Leh. Image: McKay Savage. About Kashmir. Map of Kashmir Political Map of Kashmir The map shows the greater Kashmir region and surrounding countries with international borders, major cities and towns, main roads, and major airports. You are free to use above map for educational purposes fair use.
On the basis of geomorphic features the state of Jammu and Kashmir is divisible into three distinct physical regions Fig. Physical features of a region largely influence the climate, soils, vegetation and lifestyle the people. An understanding to physical features is imperative to assess the resource potential and their management. In the opinion of Oldham, the depth of the alluvium of the Indo-Gangetic plain is about 4, m near its northern limit. Recent calculations from geodetic survey, however, give a much greater thickness for these lighter deposits resting on the pre-Tertiary bed-rock. The rocks of the outer plain are everywhere of fluviatile and sub-aerial formation—massive beds of clay, either sandy or calcareous, corresponding the silts, mud and sand of the modern rivers.
China , India , Pakistan. The political geography of Kashmir has changed radically in recent months. In addition, the conflict is being expanded to include a new geopolitical dimension because, for China, the dispute with India is now also part of the struggle with the United States over the future distribution of power in the Indo-Pacific. The fighting against the tribal warriors developed into the first Indo-Pakistani War, which ended in January with an armistice. Kashmir has a high symbolic value for India and Pakistan in the context of their respective conceptions of the state.
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Так, значит, вы не по поводу моей колонки. - Нет, сэр. Казалось, старик испытал сильнейшее разочарование. Он медленно откинулся на гору подушек. Лицо его было несчастным. - Я думал, вы из городского… хотите заставить меня… - Он замолчал и как-то странно посмотрел на Беккера.
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Jammu and Kashmir , union territory of India until October 31, , a state , located in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent in the vicinity of the Karakoram and westernmost Himalayan mountain ranges.Reply
The capital moves to Srinagar city in the summer.Reply