File Name: foreign direct investment and growth in india a cointegration approach .zip
This study clarifies the role of foreign direct investment FDI compared to foreign loans and domestic savings in short- and long-term economic growth of Indonesia. Data were obtained from World Bank and Bank Indonesia and used in error correction model to explain the linkage between predictors and economic growth.
Foreign direct investment and institutional stability: who drives whom? Ishaq Mustapha Akinlaso 1. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between foreign direct investment FDI flows and institutional stability. The focus country is Canada. It is one of the few countries where the economy remained relatively stable compared to other economies during the Global Financial Crisis.
The study employs the autoregressive distributed lag ARDL approach to examine the relationship between foreign direct investment FDI in the mining sector on the Zimbabwe economy, while controlling for both non-mining FDI and domestic investment. Mining FDI is revealed to have relatively higher effects as compared to FDI in non-mining sector and domestic investment. The short-run analysis observed that mining FDI as well as non-mining and domestic investment still has positive and significant impacts on growth but at a relatively lower extent. This implies that it takes some time for such investments to have their full effect on the economy. Foreign direct investment FDI is crucial for developing nations like Zimbabwe. It is very important for industrial development because it provides a unique combination of long-term finance, technology, training, technical know-how, managerial expertise and marketing experience. According to Hill , it is a way of exploiting long-term profit opportunities in a foreign market apart from exporting and licensing.
The growth of international business facilitates foreign direct investment FDI and is driven by economic and technological factors. While foreign investors benefit by utilizing their assets and resources efficiently through FDI, the recipients benefit by acquiring technologies and by getting involved in international production and trade networks. It is now widely recognized that economic uncertainties compel a firm to look for markets in other geographical locations. For example, an unstable exchange rate, high interest rate, poor human capital, restrictions on trade and technological backwardness of the country all contribute to the increased cost of production in the home market. Because of the higher production cost, firms may engage in FDI to exploit location advantages of a country. This phenomenon is increasingly being observed in emerging markets, including India.
Metrics details. The relationship between foreign direct investment FDI inflows and economic growth in host countries is a heavily debated issue. Although some studies have found evidence of the positive impact of FDI on economic growth, others have revealed the opposite result. Studies that examined the causality between FDI and gross domestic product GDP also have found evidence of unidirectional causality and, in some cases, a bidirectional causality. This study investigated the causal nexus between FDI and GDP in Bangladesh by employing standard time-series econometric tools, namely, augmented Dickey-Fuller, augmented Dickey-Fuller generalized least square, Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin, and Lee-Strazicich unit root tests to check stationarity, augmented autoregressive distributed lag augmented ARDL bounds testing approach to check cointegration, and Granger causality to explore the direction of causality. In addition, the error correction model and Granger causality results indicated the presence of a unidirectional causality running from GDP to FDI.
Scientific Research An Academic Publisher. In the period of liberalization and globalization, trade openness and foreign direct investment FDI have developed as major incentives to economic growth and development in developing economies. FDI serves as an important source of funds for domestic investment thus, promoting capital formation in the host country . Likewise, FDI, trade openness has performed a crucial role in shaping the stages of economic development over many years in developing countries. Investment Policy for Sustainable Development by United Nations Conference on Trade and Development quoted FDI is a driver of sustainable development while trade openness is highlighted by World Trade Organization as another driver for sustainable development especially for developing countries. According to World Investment Report by the World Trade Organization and United Nations Conference on Trade and Development , the roles of FDI and trade openness have expanded to include not just the effect on growth but also on income distribution and environmental quality which are the three main pillars of sustainable development set by the Commission on Sustainable Development of the United Nations.
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This study is an attempt to examine the impact of foreign direct investment on economic growth in Asian countries. We did our analysis in the panel framework during to We also examined the nonlinearities associated with foreign direct investment and exports in the economic growth process of Asian countries under consideration. We find that both foreign direct investment and exports enhance growth process.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of foreign direct investment FDI on economic growth in countries in South America. Additionally, the study explores the causal linkage between FDI and growth in the region. Further, the study employs the vector error correction model VECM to examine the long-run relationship, and the causal nexus between FDI and economic growth in South America for the period —
Он отстаивал перед директором свои идеи со спокойствием невозмутимого боксера-профессионала.
Тело налилось свинцовой тяжестью, словно кто-то изо всех сил тянул его. Беккер, стараясь преодолеть эту тяжесть, приподнялся на локтях. Теперь он был на виду, его голова торчала из оконного проема как на гильотине. Беккер подтянул ноги, стараясь протиснуться в проем. Когда его торс уже свисал над лестницей, шаги послышались совсем. Он схватился руками за боковые стороны проема и, одним движением вбросив свое тело внутрь, тяжело рухнул на лестницу.
Пользуются ли писсуаром в дамском туалете -неважно, главное, что сэкономили на лишней кабинке. Беккер с отвращением оглядел комнату. Грязь, в раковине мутная коричневатая вода. Повсюду разбросаны грязные бумажные полотенца, лужи воды на полу.