structure and function of long noncoding rnas in epigenetic regulation pdf

Structure and function of long noncoding rnas in epigenetic regulation pdf

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The Function of lncRNAs as Epigenetic Regulators

INTRODUCTION

Mini Review ARTICLE

Epigenetic Regulation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Requires Long Noncoding RNAs

Oncotarget a primarily oncology-focused, peer-reviewed, open access, biweekly journal aims to maximize research impact through insightful peer-review; eliminate borders between specialties by linking different fields of oncology, cancer research and biomedical sciences; and foster application of basic and clinical science. Its scope is unique.

The rapid development of new generation sequencing technology has deepened the understanding of genomes and functional products. LncRNAs now have been shown to play important epigenetic regulatory roles in key molecular processes, such as gene expression, genetic imprinting, histone modification, chromatin dynamics, and other activities by forming specific structures and interacting with all kinds of molecules. This paper mainly discusses the correlation between the structure and function of lncRNAs with the recent progress in epigenetic regulation, which is important to the understanding of the mechanism of lncRNAs in physiological and pathological processes. Recently, the rapid development and application of high-throughput sequencing technology further steadies the key situation of the connecting link of RNA in the focal dogma [ 1 , 2 ].

The Function of lncRNAs as Epigenetic Regulators

Recently, the non-coding RNAs ncRNAs have been classified in different categories, and its importance in regulating different cellular processes has been unravelled. Some lncRNAs are related to genomic imprinting and are associated with chromatin-modifying complexes that can regulate gene transcription. It is well established that cancer cells have different epigenetic alterations and some of these modifications are associated with lncRNAs. Studies of cancer-associated lncRNAs have defined its function in the process of tumorigenesis, its impact on cell proliferation, cellular signalling, angiogenesis and metastasis. Therefore, having a better knowledge of their role might contribute to a better understanding of the diseases. In this chapter, we will discuss about lncRNA classification and functions, epigenetic marks and how they can guide transcription. Nevertheless, we will discuss how these mechanisms can interact and guide gene expression, as well as recently findings of dysregulation of lncRNAs in cancer.

Recent evidence has proven the relevance of epigenetic changes in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma HCC , the major adult liver malignancy. As discussed in this review, many of these transcripts are able to specifically act as tumor suppressors or oncogenes by means of their role as molecular platforms. Indeed, these lncRNAs are able to bind and recruit epigenetic modifiers on specific genomic loci, ultimately resulting in regulation of the gene expression relevant in cancer development. The evidence presented in this review highlights that lncRNAs-mediated epigenetic regulation should be taken into account for potential targeted therapeutic approaches. Mammalian genomes produce thousands of long nonprotein coding transcripts currently referred to as long noncoding RNAs lncRNAs [ 1 , 2 ]. Wide range analysis of cellular transcription by deep sequencing unveiled a large and continuously expanding number of lncRNAs. LncRNAs can exhibit subcellular localization in precise compartments and, although they are expressed in lower amount with respect to mRNA [ 4 ], these transcripts are even more cell-type specific and strictly associated with developmental stages [ 5 — 7 ].

INTRODUCTION

RNA has emerged as the prime target for diagnostics, therapeutics and the development of personalized medicine. Thus, ncRNAs confer regulatory plasticity and represent a new layer of epigenetic control that is dysregulated in disease. LncRNAs tend to acquire complex secondary and tertiary structures and their functions only impose very subtle sequence constraints. In the present review we will discuss the biochemical assays that can be employed to determine the lncRNA structural configurations. The implications and challenges of linking function and lncRNA structure to design novel RNA therapeutic approaches will also be analyzed. MicroRNAs miRNAs are the best studied small ncRNAs, representing an additional layer of posttranscriptional regulators that absorb perturbations and ensure the robustness of biological systems Liu and Olson, ; Ebert and Sharp, ; Rotllan et al. Substantial effort has now been directed toward dissecting the function of lncRNAs.


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Mini Review ARTICLE

Most of the eukaryotic genome is transcribed, yielding a complex network of transcripts that includes tens of thousands of long noncoding RNAs with little or no protein-coding capacity. Here, we highlight recent efforts that have identified a myriad of molecular functions for long noncoding RNAs. In some cases, it appears that simply the act of noncoding RNA transcription is sufficient to positively or negatively affect the expression of nearby genes. However, in many cases, the long noncoding RNAs themselves serve key regulatory roles that were assumed previously to be reserved for proteins, such as regulating the activity or localization of proteins and serving as organizational frameworks of subcellular structures. It is thus becoming increasingly clear that long noncoding RNAs can function via numerous paradigms and are key regulatory molecules in the cell.

Epigenetics is the study of inherited changes in phenotype appearance or gene expression that are caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence 1 , 2. These changes may persist through multiple cell divisions, even for the remainder of the cell's life, and may also last for multiple generations. However, to reiterate, there is no change in the underlying DNA sequence of the organism.

 - Бринкерхофф рассеянно кивнул, стараясь не смотреть на лиф ее платья. - Когда знаменатель равняется нулю, - объясняла Мидж, - результат уходит в бесконечность. Компьютеры терпеть не могут бесконечности, поэтому выдают девятки.  - Она показала ему другую колонку.

Epigenetic Regulation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Requires Long Noncoding RNAs

Беккер терял терпение. А ведь он мог быть сейчас в Смоки-Маунтинс, со Сьюзан. Что он делает здесь, в Испании, зачем спорит с этим психованным подростком. Беккер резким движением взял парня под мышки, приподнял и с силой посадил на столик. - Слушай, сопливый мозгляк. Убирайся отсюда немедленно, или я вырву эту булавку из твоих ноздрей и застегну ею твой поганый рот.

Глаза Клушара расширились. - Так полицейский сказал вам, что это я взял кольцо. Беккер смущенно подвинулся. Клушар вдруг разбушевался. - Я знал, что он меня не слушает. Вот так и рождаются слухи.

Structure and function of long noncoding RNAs in epigenetic regulation

BioMed Research International

Честь. Страна. Однако в списке было еще одно сообщение, которого он пока не видел и которое никогда не смог бы объяснить. Дрожащей рукой он дал команду вывести на экран последнее сообщение. ОБЪЕКТ: ДЭВИД БЕККЕР - ЛИКВИДИРОВАН Коммандер опустил голову.

Но именно правду она не имела ни малейшего намерения ему открывать. Она не доверяла Грегу Хейлу. Он был из другого теста - не их фирменной закваски. Она с самого начала возражала против его кандидатуры, но АНБ посчитало, что другого выхода. Хейл появился в порядке возмещения ущерба. После фиаско Попрыгунчика.

В положении личного помощника директора имелись и определенные преимущества: роскошный кабинет в директорских апартаментах, свободный доступ в любой отдел АН Б и ощущение собственной исключительности, объяснявшееся обществом, среди которого ему приходилось вращаться. Выполняя поручения людей из высшего эшелона власти, Бринкерхофф в глубине души знал, что он - прирожденный личный помощник: достаточно сообразительный, чтобы все правильно записать, достаточно импозантный, чтобы устраивать пресс-конференции, и достаточно ленивый, чтобы не стремиться к большему. Приторно-сладкий перезвон каминных часов возвестил об окончании еще одного дня его унылого существования. Какого черта! - подумал.  - Что я делаю здесь в пять вечера в субботу.

Long Non-coding RNA Structure and Function: Is There a Link?

Сьюзан Флетчер минуту назад прошествовала в туалет, поэтому она ему тоже не помеха.

2 comments

  • Maria G. 04.04.2021 at 18:39

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) fulfill a variety of regulatory roles in gene expression, which are dictated by their RNA structure, chemistry.

    Reply
  • Valerie S. 07.04.2021 at 13:51

    Thank you for visiting nature.

    Reply

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