File Name: difference between 8085 and 8086 microprocessor .zip
A microcontroller is a chip optimized to control electronic devices. It is stored in a single integrated circuit which is dedicated to performing a particular task and execute one specific application. It is specially designed circuits for embedded applications and is widely used in automatically controlled electronic devices.
A microprocessor is a processing unit of electronic devices which is including multiple transistors, diodes , register , etc electronics components. The microprocessor can operate arithmetic and logical operations as well as connect with other electronic devices for communication. The eight zero eight five microprocessor is an 8-bit microprocessor. The microprocessor has an 8-bit data width and bit address width.
The  also called iAPX 86  is a bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel between early and June 8, , when it was released. The Intel , released July 1, ,  is a slightly modified chip with an external 8-bit data bus allowing the use of cheaper and fewer supporting ICs , [note 1] and is notable as the processor used in the original IBM PC design. The gave rise to the x86 architecture , which eventually became Intel's most successful line of processors.
In , Intel launched the , the first 8-bit microprocessor. The device needed several additional ICs to produce a functional computer, in part due to it being packaged in a small pin "memory package", which ruled out the use of a separate address bus Intel was primarily a DRAM manufacturer at the time. Two years later, Intel launched the , [note 3] employing the new pin DIL packages originally developed for calculator ICs to enable a separate address bus.
It has an extended instruction set that is source-compatible not binary compatible with the  and also includes some bit instructions to make programming easier.
The project started in May and was originally intended as a temporary substitute for the ambitious and delayed iAPX project. It was an attempt to draw attention from the less-delayed and bit processors of other manufacturers such as Motorola , Zilog , and National Semiconductor and at the same time to counter the threat from the Zilog Z80 designed by former Intel employees , which became very successful.
Both the architecture and the physical chip were therefore developed rather quickly by a small group of people, and using the same basic microarchitecture elements and physical implementation techniques as employed for the slightly older and for which the also would function as a continuation. Marketed as source compatible ,  the was designed to allow assembly language for the [ citation needed ] , , or to be automatically converted into equivalent suboptimal source code, with little or no hand-editing.
The programming model and instruction set is loosely based on the in order to make this possible. However, the design was expanded to support full bit processing. According to principal architect Stephen P.
Morse , this was a result of a more software-centric approach than in the design of earlier Intel processors the designers had experience working with compiler implementations. Other enhancements included microcoded multiply and divide instructions and a bus structure better adapted to future coprocessors such as and and multiprocessor systems.
The architecture was defined by Stephen P. Morse with some help and assistance by Bruce Ravenel the architect of the in refining the final revisions. Logic designer Jim McKevitt and John Bayliss were the lead engineers of the hardware-level development team [note 10] and Bill Pohlman the manager for the project.
The legacy of the is enduring in the basic instruction set of today's personal computers and servers; the also lent its last two digits to later extended versions of the design, such as the Intel and the Intel , all of which eventually became known as the x86 family. This address space is addressed by means of internal memory "segmentation". The data bus is multiplexed with the address bus in order to fit all of the control lines into a standard pin dual in-line package. Some of the control pins, which carry essential signals for all external operations, have more than one function depending upon whether the device is operated in min or max mode.
The former mode is intended for small single-processor systems, while the latter is for medium or large systems using more than one processor a kind of multiprocessor mode. Maximum mode is required when using an or coprocessor. Changing the state of pin 33 changes the function of certain other pins, most of which have to do with how the CPU handles the local bus.
The workings of these modes are described in terms of timing diagrams in Intel datasheets and manuals. In minimum mode, all control signals are generated by the itself.
The has eight more or less general bit registers including the stack pointer but excluding the instruction pointer, flag register and segment registers.
Due to a compact encoding inspired by 8-bit processors, most instructions are one-address or two-address operations, which means that the result is stored in one of the operands.
At most one of the operands can be in memory, but this memory operand can also be the destination , while the other operand, the source , can be either register or immediate.
A single memory location can also often be used as both source and destination which, among other factors, further contributes to a code density comparable to and often better than most eight-bit machines at the time. The degree of generality of most registers are much greater than in the or However, registers were more specialized than in most contemporary minicomputers and are also used implicitly by some instructions.
While perfectly sensible for the assembly programmer, this makes register allocation for compilers more complicated compared to more orthogonal bit and bit processors of the time such as the PDP , VAX , , , etc. On the other hand, being more regular than the rather minimalistic but ubiquitous 8-bit microprocessors such as the , , , , MCS , , and other contemporary accumulator-based machines, it is significantly easier to construct an efficient code generator for the architecture.
The interrupts can cascade, using the stack to store the return addresses. The has a bit flags register. Also referred to as the status word, the layout of the flags register is as follows: .
There are also four bit segment registers see figure that allow the CPU to access one megabyte of memory in an unusual way. Compilers for the family commonly support two types of pointer , near and far. Near pointers are bit offsets implicitly associated with the program's code or data segment and so can be used only within parts of a program small enough to fit in one segment.
Far pointers are bit segment:offset pairs resolving to bit external addresses. Some compilers also support huge pointers, which are like far pointers except that pointer arithmetic on a huge pointer treats it as a linear bit pointer, while pointer arithmetic on a far pointer wraps around within its bit offset without touching the segment part of the address.
To avoid the need to specify near and far on numerous pointers, data structures, and functions, compilers also support "memory models" which specify default pointer sizes. The tiny model means that code and data are shared in a single segment, just as in most 8-bit based processors, and can be used to build.
Precompiled libraries often come in several versions compiled for different memory models. According to Morse et al. Also, there were not enough pins available on a low cost pin package for the additional four address bus pins. In principle, the address space of the x86 series could have been extended in later processors by increasing the shift value, as long as applications obtained their segments from the operating system and did not make assumptions about the equivalence of different segment:offset pairs.
Intel could have decided to implement memory in 16 bit words which would have eliminated the BHE Bus High Enable signal along with much of the address bus complexities already described.
This would mean that all instruction object codes and data would have to be accessed in bit units. Users of the long ago realized, in hindsight, that the processor makes very efficient use of its memory. By having a large number of 8-bit object codes, the produces object code as compact as some of the most powerful minicomputers on the market at the time.
If the is to retain 8-bit object codes and hence the efficient memory use of the , then it cannot guarantee that bit opcodes and data will lie on an even-odd byte address boundary.
The first 8-bit opcode will shift the next 8-bit instruction to an odd byte or a bit instruction to an odd-even byte boundary. By implementing the BHE signal and the extra logic needed, the allows instructions to exist as 1-byte, 3-byte or any other odd byte object codes.
Simply put: this is a trade off. If memory addressing is simplified so that memory is only accessed in bit units, memory will be used less efficiently. Intel decided to make the logic more complicated, but memory use more efficient. This was at a time when memory size was considerably smaller, and at a premium, than that which users are used to today.
Small programs could ignore the segmentation and just use plain bit addressing. This allows 8-bit software to be quite easily ported to the The data block is copied one byte at a time, and the data movement and looping logic utilizes bit operations. The code above uses the BP base pointer register to establish a call frame , an area on the stack that contains all of the parameters and local variables for the execution of the subroutine. This kind of calling convention supports reentrant and recursive code, and has been used by most ALGOL-like languages since the late s.
The above routine is a rather cumbersome way to copy blocks of data. The provides dedicated instructions for copying strings of bytes. The above routine requires the source and the destination block to be in the same segment, therefore DS is copied to ES. The loop section of the above can be replaced by:. This copies the block of data one byte at a time. Alternatively the MOVSW instruction can be used to copy bit words double bytes at a time in which case CX counts the number of words copied instead of the number of bytes.
This routine will operate correctly if interrupted, because the program counter will continue to point to the REP instruction until the block copy is completed.
The copy will therefore continue from where it left off when the interrupt service routine returns control. Although partly shadowed by other design choices in this particular chip, the multiplexed address and data buses limit performance slightly; transfers of bit or 8-bit quantities are done in a four-clock memory access cycle, which is faster on bit, although slower on 8-bit quantities, compared to many contemporary 8-bit based CPUs.
As instructions vary from one to six bytes, fetch and execution are made concurrent and decoupled into separate units as it remains in today's x86 processors : The bus interface unit feeds the instruction stream to the execution unit through a 6-byte prefetch queue a form of loosely coupled pipelining , speeding up operations on registers and immediates , while memory operations became slower four years later, this performance problem was fixed with the and However, the full instead of partial bit architecture with a full width ALU meant that bit arithmetic instructions could now be performed with a single ALU cycle instead of two, via internal carry, as in the and , speeding up such instructions considerably.
Combined with orthogonalizations of operations versus operand types and addressing modes , as well as other enhancements, this made the performance gain over the or fairly significant, despite cases where the older chips may be faster see below. As can be seen from these tables, operations on registers and immediates were fast between 2 and 4 cycles , while memory-operand instructions and jumps were quite slow; jumps took more cycles than on the simple and , and the used in the IBM PC was additionally hampered by its narrower bus.
The reasons why most memory related instructions were slow were threefold:. However, memory access performance was drastically enhanced with Intel's next generation of family CPUs. The and both had dedicated address calculation hardware, saving many cycles, and the also had separate non-multiplexed address and data buses.
The Intel was the standard math coprocessor for the and , operating on bit numbers. Manufacturers like Cyrix compatible and Weitek not compatible eventually came up with high-performance floating-point coprocessors that competed with the Such relatively simple and low-power compatible processors in CMOS are still used in embedded systems.
The electronics industry of the Soviet Union was able to replicate the through both industrial espionage and reverse engineering [ citation needed ]. The resulting chip, KVM86 , was binary and pin-compatible with the No 4,, GB-A, Published June 28, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: x86 memory segmentation. Stoll and Jenny Hernandez. Archived from the original on Retrieved CPU World.
Brady Books. Thirty years ago, Intel released the processor, introducing the x86 architecture that underlies every PC — Windows, Mac, or Linux — produced today".
PC World. June 17,
They are the most common available microprocessors. In this article, we are going to discuss the differences between and microprocessor. A microprocessor is an electronic chip that functions as a central processing unit or the brain of a computer or microcontroller. It is made up of millions of transistors, diodes and resistors and it is responsible for any arithmetic or logical operation. There are different types of Microprocessors classified based on various features.
Microcontroller and Microprocessor both terms seem similar but there is a huge difference between these two ICs. Both ICs have different applications and have their own advantages and disadvantages. They can be differentiated in terms of Applications, structure, internal parameters, power consumption, and cost. The microprocessor is used in an application where the task is not predefined and it is assigned by the user. It is used in computers, mobiles, video games, TVs, etc where the task is not fixed and it depends on the user. Generally, the microprocessor is used where intensive processing is required. A laptop is the best example where a microprocessor is used.
The crucial difference between 80microprocessor is that an microprocessor is an 8-bit microprocessor i.e., can operate on 8-bit data at a time.
These are low order address bus. They are multiplexed with data. When these lines are used to transmit memory address, the symbol A is used instead of AD, for example, A0- A A16 - A19 Output : High order address lines.
In , Intel introduced , the last eight-bit microprocessor. Today there are over million such microprocessors embedded in various electronic devices, and its production will continue in the future. In , a microprocessor — 16 bit microprocessor was produced with a run rate of 2. Its microprocessor memory is up to 16 times more as high as 1MB. This microprocessor requires few hardware components, but their placement and functionality can provide very high work efficiency.
Both and are two major microprocessors designed by Intel. However, the crucial difference between and microprocessor is that an microprocessor is an 8-bit microprocessor i. As against is a bit microprocessor, that can perform operation on bit data in one cycle. There exist various other factors that create significant differences between and microprocessor.
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Let us take a look at the changes between series of microprocessors and series of microprocessors. Serial No. microprocessor.Reply
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The  also called iAPX 86  is a bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel between early and June 8, , when it was released.Reply
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