tool and manufacturing engineers handbook knowledge base pdf

Tool and manufacturing engineers handbook knowledge base pdf

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Manufacturing Engineering Handbook

The Vitality of Manufacturing Engineering in the Design Process

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Front-end Developer Handbook 2019

Manufacturing Engineering Handbook

Metal Extrusion is a metal forming manufacturing process in which a cylindrical billet inside a closed cavity is forced to flow through a die of a desired cross-section. The process which was first patented by Joseph Bramah was first used to extrude lead pipes by Thomas Burr. Plastics and ceramics are also extruded extensively but not discussed in this article.

Metal extrusion can be subdivided and grouped into the following categories depending on the direction of extrusion flow, the medium used to apply force, working temperature, etc. Direct Extrusion, sometimes called Forward Extrusion is the most common type of extrusion.

The process as shown in figure 2 below, begins by loading a heated billet only for hot extrusion, discussed later into a press cavity container where a dummy block is placed behind it. Then the mechanical or hydraulic ram presses on the material to push it out through the die. Then, while still hot, the part is stretched to straighten. This process is beautifully animated by Core Materials.

Under direct extrusion, the high friction caused by steels at higher temperatures is reduced using molten glass as a lubricant while oils with graphite powder are used for lubrication for low temperatures.

The dummy block is used to protect the tip of the pressing stem punch or ram in hot extrusion. In Indirect Extrusion, the die is located at the end of the hydraulic ram and moves towards the billet inside the cavity to push the material through the die.

This is illustrated in figure 2 below. This process consumes less power due to the static billet container causing less friction on the billet. However, supporting the extruded part is difficult when the extrudate exits the die. Although tri-axial forces are applied by the fluid, the pressure improves billet formability on the billet.

Sealing the fluid must be considered at the early stages to avoid any leaking and reduced pressure issues. Although the hydraulic fluid eliminates the friction between the wall and the billet by isolating them, due to the specialised equipment requirement, the high set up time and low production rate limit its usage in the industry in comparison to other extrusion processes.

In Lateral Extrusion, the container is in vertical position as shown in the image and the die is located on the side. This process is suitable for low melting point material. Impact extrusion is part of cold extrusion category very similar to In-direct extrusion and limited to softer metal such as Lead, Aluminium and copper. As the schematic illustrates, the punch pushed down at high speed and extreme force on the slug to extrudes backwards.

The thickness of the Extrude is a function of the clearance between the punch and the die cavity. The Extrudates are slide off the punch by the use of stripper plate. For impact extrusions, a mechanical press is often used and the part is formed at a high speed and over a relatively short stroke. Since the forces acting on the punch and die are extremely high, tooling must have sufficient impact resistance, fatigue resistance and strength, for extruding metal by the impact.

Impact extrusion can be divided into the following three types by the flow of the material. As the image shows above, in combination , the metal flows in both directions.

Depending on material condition and process variables, extrudates can develop many types of defects that could affect the quality of the end product. These defects can be grouped under the following three defects. Sign in. Log into your account. Forgot your password? Privacy policy. Password recovery. Recover your password. About Contact Us. Get help. Engineering Product Design. Metal Extrusion. Figure 1. Aluminium-metal-extrusion Characteristics of Extrusion Able to create complex cross-sections and will be uniform over the entire length of the extrudates Factors that affect the quality of extrusion are die design, extrusion ratio, billet temperature, lubrication, and extrusion speed.

Similar to any other metal forming processes, it can be performed either hot or cold, although the process generally is carried out at elevated temperatures in order to reduce the extrusion force and improve the ductility of the material Low cost due to reduced raw material wastage and high production rate Brittle material can be deformed without a tear as it only exerts compressive and shear forces in the stock part Parts that are formed have an excellent surface finish which minimizes post-processing machining Metal extrusion tends to produce a favourable elongated grain structure in the direction of the material.

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The Vitality of Manufacturing Engineering in the Design Process

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Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbooks


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