signs and symptoms of prostate cancer pdf

Signs and symptoms of prostate cancer pdf

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What is Prostate Cancer

Prostate Cancer Symptoms and Signs

Prostate Cancer: Symptoms and Signs

Basic Information About Prostate Cancer

What is Prostate Cancer

The purpose of the Southern Cross Medical Library is to provide information of a general nature to help you better understand certain medical conditions. Always seek specific medical advice for treatment appropriate to you. This information is not intended to relate specifically to insurance or healthcare services provided by Southern Cross. If the prostate cancer is causing a decreased urine flow or a complete blockage, surgery to relieve this may be required before any other treatment is undertaken.

Radiotherapy also called radiation therapy is the controlled use of radiation to stop the growth of cancer cells. Two main types of radiotherapy are used for prostate cancer — external beam and brachytherapy.

Medical Library Topics. Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer, and the third most common cause of cancer deaths, among New Zealand men.

Around 1 in 10 New Zealand men will develop prostate cancer at some stage in their lifetime. Prostate cancer that is found early has a better chance of successful treatment. Each year in New Zealand approximately men are diagnosed with prostate cancer and approximately men die from the disease. The incidence of prostate cancer in New Zealand appears to be increasing.

The prostate is a walnut-shaped gland normally about 4 cm across located below the bladder. It surrounds the urethra — the tube that drains urine from the bladder out through the penis. Its main function is to produce semen, a fluid that protects and enriches sperm.

Prostate cancer occurs when cells within the prostate gland become cancerous malignant forming a tumour. When the cancer is contained within the prostate gland, this is referred to as "localised" prostate cancer.

When the cancer has spread to the tissues surrounding the prostate gland, this is referred to as "extracapsular" prostate cancer. If the cancer cells spread metastasise to other parts of the body and produce new tumours, this is referred to as "metastatic" prostate cancer. The causes of prostate cancer are not fully understood.

However, it is known that the chances of developing the condition increase with age. Most cases of prostate cancer are in men aged 65 years or older. It is also known that prostate cancer is more common in men who have a history of prostate cancer in their family a father or brother.

Other factors, such as smoking and dietary, hormonal, and environmental influences such as exposure to certain chemicals may also increase the chances of developing the condition. In many cases, prostate cancer does not produce any symptoms until the condition is quite advanced. Often it is diagnosed after treatment is sought for problems with urinary function. Symptoms of prostate cancer are often similar to those of benign non-cancerous prostate conditions, such as an enlarged prostate.

The most common places for prostate cancer to spread to are the lymph nodes of the pelvis and the bones of the spine. Spread of the cancer can produce symptoms such as lower back pain. Levels rise with age and when the prostate is enlarged. Significantly increased levels of PSA in the blood can indicate prostate cancer.

PSA levels are also known to rise in other prostate conditions such as prostatitis inflammation of the prostate , an enlarged prostate, or a prostate infection. PSA is not a test for cancer in itself. However, best practice guidelines are that abnormally high PSA levels indicate a need for further assessment and investigation. Through the wall of the rectum the doctor can feel the prostate gland and check for signs of enlargement or irregularity.

If any irregularity is found the doctor may recommend a biopsy. A biopsy tissue sample is taken by inserting a needle into the prostate gland and withdrawing a small sample of tissue.

The ultrasound is used to guide the needle to the correct biopsy location in the prostate gland. The biopsy is sent to a laboratory where it is examined under a microscope, making it possible to see if cancer cells are present.

In this technique, the biopsy sample is obtained by inserting a needle into the prostate gland via the perineum the area between the base of the penis and the anus. Once a diagnosis of prostate cancer has been made it is important to determine the extent of the cancer.

Grading indicates the rate of growth aggressiveness of the tumour and staging indicates the spread and distribution of the cancer in the body. The grade and stage of the tumour will determine what sort of treatment will be recommended. Grading The system used to grade prostate cancer is known as the Gleason Score. This system assigns a grade of between 1 and 5 to the two most common cell patterns in the cancer, then adds the two grades together to provide the Gleason Score, which can range from 2 to The higher the score, the more aggressive the tumour is likely to be, and the greater the chance that it has spread within the body.

Staging The system usually used to stage prostate cancer is the TNM system. The "T" refers to the extent of the tumour, the "N" refers to whether the lymph nodes are involved, and the "M" refers to whether cancer cells have spread metastasised.

T Stages: T1 - The tumour is confined to the prostate and is unable to be felt or seen on an ultrasound scan.

T2 - The tumour is confined to the prostate but can be felt and is able to be seen on an ultrasound scan. T3 - The tumour has spread beyond the prostate. T4 - The tumour has spread to the rectum, bladder, or pelvic wall. N Stages: N0 - Cancer cells have not spread to nearby lymph nodes. N1 - Cancer cells have spread to nearby lymph nodes. M Stages: M0 - There are no distant metastases. M1 - Distant metastases are present.

The choice of treatment will differ for each individual. It is important that time is taken to consider the treatment options available. Recent guidance suggests that men should avail themselves of information about all treatment options, which may include consultations with both urologists and radiation oncologists where appropriate.

If no symptoms are present the doctor may recommend no treatment apart from regular PSA blood tests and monitoring. This approach will be most suitable for low-stage T, N0, M0 , low-grade prostate cancers. This surgery involves inserting a telescope-like instrument resectoscope into the penis and up through the urethra, until it is positioned within the prostate gland. A heated wire is inserted through the resectoscope and is used to remove excess prostate tissue that may be causing a blockage or restriction in urine flow.

Hospital stay after a TURP is usually 2—3 days. This procedure involves removal of the entire prostate gland and possibly also the adjacent lymph nodes. A hospital stay of 4—5 days following surgery is usual. Difficulty peeing urinary incontinence and getting an erection erectile dysfunction , and infection are potential side effects of a radical prostatectomy. Surgical techniques that avoid the nerves responsible for bladder control and sexual function "nerve sparing" surgery can help reduce the incidence of these side effects.

This is usually given on a daily basis over a period of up to six weeks. The treatment will be carefully planned so that damage to healthy tissue adjacent to the tumour is limited. Side effects, including urinary problems, bowel dysfunction, and difficulty getting an erection, can occur but should resolve when the therapy has ended.

The radiation works in a localised area therefore decreasing the risk of damage to surrounding healthy tissue. The benefits of this treatment include a short hospital stay usually overnight , no major surgical wound and a speedy return to normal activities. It is only suitable for treating cancers that have not spread beyond the prostate. For more detailed information about prostate brachytherapy see our prostate brachytherapy article. Hormonal treatment androgen deprivation therapy When the cancer has spread beyond the prostate gland, hormone treatment may be recommended.

Testosterone, the main male sex hormone, stimulates the growth of prostate cancer cells. Surgery or medications that have the effect of reducing the production of testosterone may be effective in slowing down or shrinking prostate cancer. As the testicles produce testosterone, an orchidectomy the surgical removal of the testicles may be recommended.

Possible side effects of an orchidectomy include decreased libido, impotence and hot flushes. Alternatively, medications that block the effects of testosterone in the body anti-androgen medications or stop the body from producing testosterone luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone medications may be recommended. There are several different medications available and these may be given by injection or in tablet form. Side effects of hormone therapy may include hot flushes, difficulty getting an erection, reduced sex drive, and loss of bone mass.

Chemotherapy medications destroy cancer cells and are usually given by mouth orally or directly into the blood stream intravenously. There is debate as to the benefits of screening regularly testing men who do not have symptoms of prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer Foundation NZ The Prostate Cancer Foundation of New Zealand can provide patients, their families and friends with information and discuss options concerning prostate problems.

Cancer Society Prostate cancer Matepukupuku repeure Booklet. Auckland: Cancer Society of New Zealand. Prostate cancer Web Page. Prostate cancer screening: Should you get a PSA test? Web Page. Wellington: New Zealand Ministry of Health. Cancer: New registrations and deaths Web Page. Wellington: Ministry of Health. Getting checked for prostate cancer Pamphlet. Prostate cancer management and referral guidance Booklet. Go to our Medical Library Index Page to find information on other medical conditions.

Southern Cross Medical Library The purpose of the Southern Cross Medical Library is to provide information of a general nature to help you better understand certain medical conditions.

Prostate Cancer Symptoms and Signs

The purpose of the Southern Cross Medical Library is to provide information of a general nature to help you better understand certain medical conditions. Always seek specific medical advice for treatment appropriate to you. This information is not intended to relate specifically to insurance or healthcare services provided by Southern Cross. If the prostate cancer is causing a decreased urine flow or a complete blockage, surgery to relieve this may be required before any other treatment is undertaken. Radiotherapy also called radiation therapy is the controlled use of radiation to stop the growth of cancer cells. Two main types of radiotherapy are used for prostate cancer — external beam and brachytherapy.

Prostate cancer occurs when cells in the prostate gland become abnormal and multiply. The accumulation of these cells then forms a tumor. The tumor can lead to a variety of complications, such as erectile dysfunction, urinary incontinence, and severe pain if the cancer spreads to the bones. Treatments such as surgery and radiation can successfully eliminate the disease. In fact, most men diagnosed with prostate cancer can still live full, productive lives.

Back to Health A to Z. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the UK. It usually develops slowly, so there may be no signs for many years. Symptoms of prostate cancer do not usually appear until the prostate is large enough to affect the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the penis urethra. It's more likely they're caused by something else, such as prostate enlargement.


Signs and Symptoms of Prostate Cancer q. Tests to rnasystemsbiology.org​professionals/physician_gls/pdf/prostate_rnasystemsbiology.org on March. 28, National.


Prostate Cancer: Symptoms and Signs

For Robert, knowing what to expect with Lupron Depot made a real difference. Whenever you start something new, whether it's going on a trip or fixing up your house. Taking steps at the beginning of the treatment, like knowing what to expect, learning all you can, and even joining a support group, can help you throughout treatment. Take a look at some suggestions and information we put together for you. You may experience temporary new or worsening symptoms of prostate cancer, including urinary symptoms and bone pain.

Prostate cancer occurs in the prostate gland, which is located just below the bladder in males and surrounds the top portion of the tube that drains urine from the bladder urethra. This illustration shows a normal prostate gland and a prostate with a tumor. Prostate cancer is cancer that occurs in the prostate.

This guideline provides recommendations for the follow-up of patients who have returned to their primary care provider following curative-intent treatment for prostate cancer. Recommendations include the management of potential long-lasting side-effects from treatment, surveillance for possible recurrence, and if needed best supportive care and the early involvement of palliative services. Primary care practitioners provide an essential role for the continuity of patient care in all settings, both directly and through the coordination of care with other health care professionals. This reduces the fragmentation of care, improves patient safety, and enhances the overall quality of patient care. In the absence of specific evidence to guide prostate-specific antigen PSA testing intervals in patients who have completed treatment, the following recommendations were adapted with modifications from Cancer Care Ontario CCO , and are based on working group clinical consensus.

Basic Information About Prostate Cancer

Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow out of control. When cancer starts in the prostate, it is called prostate cancer. Except for skin cancer, prostate cancer is the most common cancer in American men. Many men with prostate cancer—especially those with tumors that have not spread beyond the prostate—die of other causes without ever having any symptoms from the cancer. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link.

The symptoms of prostate cancer may be different for each man, and any one of these symptoms may be caused by other conditions. Because of the proximity of the prostate gland to the bladder and urethra, prostate cancer may be accompanied by a variety of urinary symptoms, especially in the early stages. Depending on its size and location, a tumor may press on and constrict the urethra, inhibiting the flow of urine. Some early prostate cancer signs include:. The prostate gland produces PSA, a protein that at an elevated level may be a sign of prostate cancer. A high PSA reading also may indicate noncancerous conditions such as inflammation of the prostate prostatitis and enlargement of the prostate benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. The risk of developing certain cancers can be reduced by not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, limiting alcohol intake, eating plenty of vegetables , fruits , and whole grains , vaccination against certain infectious diseases, limiting consumption of processed meat and red meat , and limiting exposure to direct sunlight.

Prostate Cancer Part 2: Follow-up in Primary Care

1 comments

  • Gracie F. 07.04.2021 at 12:59

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. It is more likely to affect men over Men who are African or. African Caribbean are more likely.

    Reply

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