File Name: inter and intra personal communication .zip
Ever noticed that some people just have an easier way of engaging others? They seem to have strong natural interpersonal skills. Think you weren't one of the lucky fews to have been born with innate interpersonal skills?
Interpersonal communication is an exchange of information between two or more people. Interpersonal communication research addresses at least six categories of inquiry: 1 how humans adjust and adapt their verbal communication and nonverbal communication during face-to-face communication ; 2 how messages are produced; 3 how uncertainty influences behavior and information-management strategies; 4 deceptive communication ; 5 relational dialectics ; and 6 social interactions that are mediated by technology.
A large number of scholars have described their work as research into interpersonal communication. There is considerable variety in how this area of study is conceptually and operationally defined.
Although interpersonal communication is most often between pairs of individuals, it can also be extended to include small intimate groups such as the family. Interpersonal communication can take place in face-to-face settings, as well as through platforms such as social media. There is growing interest in biological and physiological perspectives on interpersonal communication. Some of the concepts explored are personality, knowledge structures and social interaction, language, nonverbal signals, emotional experience and expression, supportive communication, social networks and the life of relationships, influence, conflict, computer-mediated communication, interpersonal skills, interpersonal communication in the workplace, intercultural perspectives on interpersonal communication, escalation and de-escalation of romantic or platonic relationships, interpersonal communication and healthcare, family relationships, and communication across the life span.
Uncertainty reduction theory, developed in , comes from the socio-psychological perspective. It addresses the basic process of how we gain knowledge about other people. According to the theory, people have difficulty with uncertainty.
You are not sure what is going to come next, so you are uncertain how you should prepare for the upcoming event. The theory argues that strangers, upon meeting, go through specific steps and checkpoints in order to reduce uncertainty about each other and form an idea of whether they like or dislike each other. During communication, individuals are making plans to accomplish their goals. At highly uncertain moments, they will become more vigilant and rely more on data available in the situation.
A reduction in certainty leads to a loss of confidence in the initial plan, such that the individual may make contingency plans. The theory also says that higher levels of uncertainty create distance between people and that non-verbal expressiveness tends to help reduce uncertainty. Constructs include the level of uncertainty, the nature of the relationship and ways to reduce uncertainty. Underlying assumptions include the idea that an individual will cognitively process the existence of uncertainty and take steps to reduce it.
The boundary conditions for this theory are that there must be some kind of trigger, usually based on the social situation, and internal cognitive process. Uncertainty reduction theory is most applicable to the initial interaction context. The theory has also been applied to romantic relationships. Social exchange theory falls under the symbolic interaction perspective. The theory describes, explains, and predicts when and why people reveal certain information about themselves to others. The social exchange theory uses Thibaut and Kelley's theory of interdependence.
This theory states that "relationships grow, develop, deteriorate, and dissolve as a consequence of an unfolding social-exchange process, which may be conceived as a bartering of rewards and costs both between the partners and between members of the partnership and others". According to the theory, human interaction is analogous to an economic transaction, in that an individual may seek to maximize rewards and minimize costs.
Actions such as revealing information about oneself will occur when the cost-reward ratio is acceptable. As long as rewards continue to outweigh costs, a pair of individuals will become increasingly intimate by sharing more and more personal information.
The constructs of this theory include disclosure, relational expectations, and perceived rewards or costs in the relationship. In the context of marriage, the rewards within the relationship include emotional security and sexual fulfillment. Symbolic interaction comes from the socio-cultural perspective in that it relies on the creation of shared meaning through interactions with others.
This theory focuses on the ways in which people form meaning and structure in society through interactions. People are motivated to act based on the meanings they assign to people, things, and events.
Symbolic interaction considers the world to be made up of social objects that are named and have socially determined meanings. When people interact over time, they come to shared meaning for certain terms and actions and thus come to understand events in particular ways. There are three main concepts in this theory: society, self, and mind.
Constructs for this theory include creation of meaning, social norms, human interactions, and signs and symbols. An underlying assumption for this theory is that meaning and social reality are shaped from interactions with others and that some kind of shared meaning is reached. For this to be effective, there must be numerous people communicating and interacting and thus assigning meaning to situations or objects. The dialectical approach to interpersonal communication revolves around the notions of contradiction, change, praxis , and totality, with influences from Hegel, Marx, and Bakhtin.
Both internal and external dialectics function in interpersonal relationships, including separateness vs. Relational dialectics theory deals with how meaning emerges from the interplay of competing discourses.
Communication between two parties invokes multiple systems of meaning that are in tension with each other. Relational dialectics theory argues that these tensions are both inevitable and necessary. Relational dialectics theory assumes three different types of tensions in relationships: connectedness vs. Most individuals naturally desire that their interpersonal relationships involve close connections.
An excessive reliance on a specific relationship can result in the loss of individual identity. Individuals desire a sense of assurance and predictability in their interpersonal relationships. However, they also desire variety, spontaneity and mystery in their relationships. Like repetitive work, relationships that become bland and monotonous are undesirable. In close interpersonal relationships, individuals may feel a pressure to reveal personal information, as described in social penetration theory.
This pressure may be opposed by a natural desire to retain some level of personal privacy. The coordinated management of meaning theory assumes that two individuals engaging in an interaction each construct their own interpretation and perception of what a conversation means, then negotiate a common meaning by coordinating with each other. This coordination involves the individuals establishing rules for creating and interpreting meaning.
The rules that individuals can apply in any communicative situation include constitutive and regulative rules. Constitutive rules are "rules of meaning used by communicators to interpret or understand an event or message". Regulative rules are "rules of action used to determine how to respond or behave". When one individual sends a message to the other the recipient must interpret the meaning of the interaction.
Often, this can be done almost instantaneously because the interpretation rules that apply to the situation are immediate and simple. This depends on each communicator's previous beliefs and perceptions within a given context and how they can apply these rules to the current interaction. These "rules" of meaning "are always chosen within a context",  and the context of a situation can be used as a framework for interpreting specific events.
Contexts that an individual can refer to when interpreting a communicative event include the relationship context, the episode context, the self-concept context, and the archetype context. Pearce and Cronen  argue that these specific contexts exist in a hierarchical fashion. This theory assumes that the bottom level of this hierarchy consists of the communicative act.
The relationship context is next in the hierarchy, then the episode context, followed by the self-concept context, and finally the archetype context. Social penetration theory is a conceptual framework that describes the development of interpersonal relationships.
The behaviors vary based on the different levels of intimacy in the relationship. This theory is often known as the "onion theory". This analogy suggests that like an onion, personalities have "layers". The outside layer is what the public sees, and the core is one's private self. When a relationship begins to develop, the individuals in the relationship may undergo a process of self-disclosure ,  progressing more deeply into the "layers".
Social penetration theory recognizes five stages: orientation, exploratory affective exchange, affective exchange, stable exchange, and de-penetration. Not all of these stages happen in every relationship. If the early stages take place too quickly, this may be negative for the progress of the relationship. Social penetration theory predicts that people decide to risk self-disclosure based on the costs and rewards of sharing information, which are affected by factors such as relational outcome, relational stability, and relational satisfaction.
The depth of penetration is the degree of intimacy a relationship has accomplished, measured relative to the stages above. Griffin defines depth as "the degree of disclosure in a specific area of an individual's life" and breadth as "the range of areas in an individual's life over which disclosure takes place. Online communication seems to follow a different set of rules.
In on-line interactions personal information can be disclosed immediately and without the risk of excessive intimacy. For example, Facebook users post extensive personal information, pictures, information on hobbies, and messages. This may be due to the heightened level of perceived control within the context of the online communication medium.
Paul Watzlawick 's theory of communication, popularly known as the "Interactional View", interprets relational patterns of interaction in the context of five "axioms". Their work was highly influential in laying the groundwork for family therapy and the study of relationships. The theory states that a person's presence alone results in them, consciously or not, expressing things about themselves and their relationships with others i.
This ubiquitous interaction leads to the establishment of "expectations" and "patterns" which are used to determine and explain relationship types.
Individuals enter communication with others having established expectations for their own behavior as well as the behavior of those they are communicating with. During the interaction these expectations may be reinforced, or new expectations may be established that will be used in future interactions. New expectations are created by new patterns of interaction, while reinforcement results from the continuation of established patterns of interaction.
Established patterns of interaction are created when a trend occurs regarding how two people interact with each other. In symmetrical relationships , the pattern of interaction is defined by two people responding to one another in the same way.
This is a common pattern of interaction within power struggles. In complementary relationships , the participants respond to one another in opposing ways.
An example of such a relationship would be when one person is argumentative while the other is quiet. Relational control refers to who is in control within a relationship. A complementary exchange occurs when a partner asserts a one-up message which the other partner responds to with a one-down response. If complementary exchanges are frequent within a relationship it is likely that the relationship itself is complementary.
Symmetrical exchanges occur when one partner's assertion is countered with a reflective response: a one-up assertion is met with a one-up response, or a one-down assertion is met with a one-down response. If symmetrical exchanges are frequent within a relationship it is likely that the relationship is also symmetrical.
Interpersonal communication is an exchange of information between two or more people. Interpersonal communication research addresses at least six categories of inquiry: 1 how humans adjust and adapt their verbal communication and nonverbal communication during face-to-face communication ; 2 how messages are produced; 3 how uncertainty influences behavior and information-management strategies; 4 deceptive communication ; 5 relational dialectics ; and 6 social interactions that are mediated by technology. A large number of scholars have described their work as research into interpersonal communication. There is considerable variety in how this area of study is conceptually and operationally defined. Although interpersonal communication is most often between pairs of individuals, it can also be extended to include small intimate groups such as the family. Interpersonal communication can take place in face-to-face settings, as well as through platforms such as social media. There is growing interest in biological and physiological perspectives on interpersonal communication.
Human beings are inherently social creatures, thriving best when they can develop connections with other people that are both productive and fulfilling. So, how do you make that happen? You do it by developing both your interpersonal and intrapersonal skills. Far too often, people focus on one set of these skills and neglect the others, which limits them and subverts their goals. When you develop strong interpersonal and intrapersonal skills alike, you gain the tools that will help you advance your career and find greater enjoyment in your life overall.
The words interpersonal and intrapersonal are mostly used interchangeably by the people. The main difference between these communications is Interpersonal deals with the communication used by a person to communicate effectively with others public speaking , while Intrapersonal refers to communicating with own inner thoughts internally.