aims and objective of macroeconomics pdf

Aims and objective of macroeconomics pdf

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The tools of macroeconomic policy—a short primer

Macroeconomics/Macroeconomic Objectives

Broadly, the objective of macroeconomic policies is to maximize the level of national income, providing economic growth to raise the utility and standard of living of participants in the economy. There are also a number of secondary objectives which are held to lead to the maximization of income over the long run. While there are variations between the objectives of different national and international entities, most follow the ones detailed below:.

What is it that monetary policy-makers do and how do they do it? The simple answer is that a central banker moves interest rates in order to maintain steady real growth and stable prices. In this essay, I examine the issues that arise in framing the problem faced by monetary policy-makers. I begin with a discussion of how, over the past decade or so, central banks have been made more independent and more accountable. The result has been the virtual elimination of the inflation bias problem that is caused by political interference in the monetary policy process, and better overall macroeconomic performance.


Macroeconomic policy is concerned with the operation of the economy as a whole. In broad terms, the goal of macroeconomic policy is to provide a stable economic environment that is conducive to fostering strong and sustainable economic growth, on which the creation of jobs, wealth and improved living standards depend. The key pillars of macroeconomic policy are: fiscal policy, monetary policy and exchange rate policy. This brief outlines the nature of each of these policy instruments and the different ways they can help promote stable and sustainable growth. Fiscal policy operates through changes in the level and composition of government spending, the level and types of taxes levied and the level and form of government borrowing.

The objective of microeconomic theory is to analyse how individual decision-makers, both consumers and producers, behave in a variety of economic environments. Examples of such environments are bidding in an auction, collectively deciding whether to build a public project, or designing a contract that will induce a worker to exert maximum effort. The common goal in all of these issues is to identify the incentives of the various participating agents and the trade-offs that they face. Understanding behaviour and microeconomic trade-offs are also crucial for the design of microeconomic policies such as income taxation, healthcare provision and competition policies. It is often the case that a better understanding is obtained by looking at dynamic models, where agents interact repeatedly and learn how to behave optimally over time. In order to understand how individual decision-makers behave, microeconomists build models, use data and conduct experiments. Our research expertise ranges from game theory and decision theory to industrial organisation, public economics, corporate finance and behavioural economics.

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The tools of macroeconomic policy—a short primer

Macroeconomists study topics such as GDP , unemployment rates , national income , price indices , output , consumption , unemployment , inflation , saving , investment , energy , international trade , and international finance. Macroeconomics and microeconomics are the two most general fields in economics. Macroeconomics descended from the once divided fields of business cycle theory and monetary theory. It took many forms, including the version based on the work of Irving Fisher :. In the typical view of the quantity theory, money velocity V and the quantity of goods produced Q would be constant, so any increase in money supply M would lead to a direct increase in price level P. The quantity theory of money was a central part of the classical theory of the economy that prevailed in the early twentieth century.

Macroeconomics/Macroeconomic Objectives

Economics pp Cite as. The first half of this book dealt with microeconomics. It will be recalled that this involves the study of the behaviour and performance of individual units within the economy, such as the individual market, consumer, firm, and worker.

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15 утра. Акт безжалостного уничтожения. Бесчувственная демонстрация силы страной, уже добившейся победы. С этим Танкадо сумел примириться. Но он не смог примириться с тем, что этот взрыв лишил его возможности познакомиться с собственной матерью.

 Выходит, все в порядке. - Это лишь означает, - сказала она, пожимая плечами, - что сегодня мы не взломали ни одного шифра. ТРАНСТЕКСТ устроил себе перерыв. - Перерыв? - Бринкерхофф не был в этом уверен. Он достаточно долго проработал бок о бок с директором и знал, что перерыв не относился к числу поощряемых им действий - особенно когда дело касалось ТРАНСТЕКСТА. Фонтейн заплатил за этого бегемота дешифровки два миллиарда и хотел, чтобы эти деньги окупились сполна.

Насколько опасен вирус. Джабба пристально посмотрел на директора и вдруг разразился смехом. - Вирус? - Его грубый хохот разнесся по подземелью.  - Так вы считаете, что это вирус. Фонтейн оставался невозмутимым. Грубость Джаббы была недопустима, но директор понимал, что сейчас не время и не место углубляться в вопросы служебной этики. Здесь, в командном центре, Джабба выше самого Господа Бога, а компьютерные проблемы не считаются со служебной иерархией.


  • Nicole R. 04.04.2021 at 09:07

    Other central areas of macroeconomic interest include economic growth, inflation​, and the balance of payments. Macroeconomic policy is concerned with the.

  • Tina F. 11.04.2021 at 12:37

    One macro-economic conflict can come between economic growth and inflation which leads to a similar conflict between unemployment and inflation.


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