File Name: effluent treatment plant design operation and analysis of wastewater .zip
Enzyme and adsorption units representing major developed new laboratory were selected to assess the water quality and humiliation prospective of oil. Establishes the design, treatment and operation requirements of general permits for laundromats, pesticide waste degradation systems, car wash systems, sand and limestone mines, and tomato wash water.
It brings together the design of process, wastewater, clean water, industrial effluent and sludge treatment plants, looking at the different treatment objectives within each sub-sector, selection and design of physical, chemical and biological treatment processes, and the professional hydraulic design methodologies. This book will show you how to carry out the key steps in the process design of all kinds of water and effluent treatment plants. It provides an essential refresher on the relevant underlying principles of engineering science, fluid mechanics, water chemistry and biology, together with a thorough description of the heuristics and rules of thumb commonly used by experienced practitioners. The water treatment plant designer will also find specific advice on plant layout, aesthetics, economic considerations and related issues such as odor control. The information contained in this book is usually provided on the job by mentors so it will remain a vital resource throughout your career.
Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. Introduction to Effluent Treatment Plant Use of water in industriesWater is the main component which is used in all type of the Industries. Water is used for different processes in the industries. It may be used for washing, dilution, formation and condensing the steam. But all water used in the different industry is not totally consumed. Generally, almost all the industries generate waste water that needs urgent attention. Water use in industry is a double-edged sword.
On one hand it puts immense pressure on local water resources. On the other, wastewater discharged from the industry pollutes the local environment. Water is required, often in large volumes, by industries as process inputs in most industries. In other cases, like food and beverage and chloro-alkali industry, water is used as a raw material: turned into a manufactured product and exported out of the local water system. However, in most industries it is essentially used as input and mass and heat transfer media.
In these industries a very small fraction of water is actually consumed and lost. Most of the water is actually meant for non-consumptive process uses and is ultimately discharged as Effluent. Industrial waste water sources Iron and steel industryThe production of iron from its ores involves powerful reduction reactions in blast furnaces. Cooling waters are inevitably contaminated with products especially ammonia and cyanide. Production of coke from coal in coking plants also requires water cooling and the use of water in by-products separation.
Contamination of waste streams includes gasification products such as benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, cyanide, ammonia, phenols, cresols together with a range of more complex organic compounds known collectively as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAH.
The conversion of iron or steel into sheet, wire or rods requires hot and cold mechanical transformation stages frequently employing water as a lubricant and coolant. Contaminants include hydraulic oils, tallow and particulate solids.
Final treatment of iron and steel products before onward sale into manufacturing includes pickling in strong mineral acid to remove rust and prepare the surface for tin or chromium plating or for other surface treatments such as galvanization or painting. The two acids commonly used are hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid. Wastewaters include acidic rinse waters together with waste acid. Although many plants operate acid recovery plants, particularly those using Hydrochloric acid , where the mineral acid is boiled away from the iron salts, there remains a large volume of highly acid ferrous sulfate or ferrous chloride to be disposed of.
Many steel industry wastewaters are contaminated by hydraulic oil also known as soluble oil. What do these Standards Mean? Some of the main parameters listed in the water quality discharge standards are briefly discussed here to give a working knowledge of what they are and why they are important. ColorIt is an issue in dye house effluent because unlike other pollutants it is so visible.
Reducing color is therefore important for the public perception of a factory. Consequently, international textile buyers are increasingly setting discharge standards for color.
However, as a health and environmental issue color is less of a concern than many of the other parameters. BOD5 is a measure of the quantity of dissolved oxygen used by microoganisms in the biochemical oxidation of the organic matter in the wastewater over a 5-day period at 20 0 C. The test has its limitations but it still used extensively and is useful for determining approximately how much oxygen will be removed from water by an effluent or how much may be require for treatment and is therefore important whenestimating the size of the ETP needed.
COD is a measure of the oxygen equivalent of the organic material chemically oxidised in the reaction and is determined by adding dichromate in an acid solution of the wastewater. A sample of wastewater is filtered through a standard filter and the mass of the residue is used to calculate TSS.
Total solids TS is found by evaporating the water at a specified temperature. MetalsA number of metals are listed in the national environmental quality standards for industrial wastewater, including cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc.
Many metals, which are usually only available naturally in trace quantities in the environment, can be toxic to humans, plants, fish and other aquatic life. Phosphorus, Total Nitrogen, Nitrate and Ammonia. These parameters are all used as a measure of the nutrients present in the wastewater, as a high nutrient content can result in excessive plant growth in receiving water bodies, subsequent oxygen removal and the death of aquatic life.
This parameter is important because aquatic life such as most fish can only survive in a narrow pH range between roughly pH 6.
Sulphur and SulphideTextile dyeing uses large quantities of sodium sulphate and some other sulphur containing chemicals. Textile wastewaters will therefore contain various sulphur compounds and once in Oils and grease removal Many oils can be recovered from open water surfaces by skimming devices.
Considered a dependable and cheap way to remove oil, grease and other hydrocarbons from water, oil skimmers can some times achieve the desired level of water purity. At other times, skimming is also a cost-efficient method to remove most of the oil before using membrane filters and chemical processes. Skimmers will prevent filters from blinding prematurely and keep chemical costs down because there is less oil to process. Because grease skimming involves higher viscosity hydrocarbons, skimmers must be equipped with heaters powerful enough to keep grease fluid for discharge.
If floating grease forms into solid clumps or mats, a spray bar, aerator or mechanical apparatus can be used to facilitate removal. However, hydraulic oils and the majority of oils that have degraded to any extent will also have a soluble or emulsified component that will require further treatment to eliminate. Dissolving or emulsifying oil using surfactants or solvents usually exacerbates the problem rather than solving it, producing wastewater that is more difficult to treat.
The wastewaters from largescale industries such as oil refineries, petrochemical plants, chemical plants, and natural gas processing plants commonly contain gross amounts of oil and suspended solids. Those industries use a device known as an API oil-water separator which is designed to separate the oil and suspended solids from their wastewater effluents. The name is derived from the fact that such separators are designed according to standards published by the American Petroleum Institute API.
A typical API oil-water separator used in many industriesThe API separator is a gravity separation device designed by using Stokes Law to define the rise velocity of oil droplets based on their density and size. The design is based on the specific gravity difference between the oil and the wastewater because that difference is much smaller than the specific gravity difference between the suspended solids and water.
The suspended solids settles to the bottom of the separator as a sediment layer, the oil rises to top of the separator and the cleansed wastewater is the middle layer between the oil layer and the solids. Typically, the oil layer is skimmed off and subsequently re-processed or disposed of, and the bottom sediment layer is removed by a chain and flight scraper or similar device and a sludge pump. The water layer is sent to further treatment consisting usually of a Electro flotation module for additional removal of any residual oil and then to some type of biological treatment unit for removal of undesirable dissolved chemical compounds.
Parallel plate separators are similar to API separators but they include tilted parallel plate assemblies also known as parallel packs. The parallel plates provide more surface for suspended oil droplets to coalesce into larger globules. Such separators still depend upon the specific gravity between the suspended oil and the water.
However, the parallel plates enhance the degree of oil-water separation. The result is that a parallel plate separator requires significantly less space than a conventional API separator to achieve the same degree of separation.
A typical parallel plate separator Removal of biodegradable organicsBiodegradable organic material of plant or animal origin is usually possible to treat using extended conventional sewage treatment processes such as activated sludge or trickling filter.
Problems can arise if the wastewater is excessively diluted with washing water or is highly concentrated such as undiluted blood or milk. The presence of cleaning agents, disinfectants, pesticides, or antibiotics can have detrimental impacts on treatment processes. Activated sludge processActivated sludge is a biochemical process for treating sewage and industrial wastewater that uses air or oxygen and microorganisms to biologically oxidize organic pollutants, producing a waste sludge or floc containing the oxidized material.
Part of the waste sludge is recycled to the aeration tank and the remaining waste sludge is removed for further treatment and ultimate disposal. Trickling filter processA trickling filter consists of a bed of rocks, gravel, slag, peat moss, or plastic media over which wastewater flows downward and contacts a layer or film of microbial slime covering the bed media. Aerobic conditions are maintained by forced air flowing through the bed or by natural convection of air.
The process involves adsorption of organic compounds in the wastewater by the microbial slime layer, diffusion of air into the slime layer to provide the oxygen required for the biochemical oxidation of the organic compounds.
The end products include carbon dioxide gas, water and other products of the oxidation. As the slime layer thickens, it becomes difficult for the air to penetrate the layer and an inner anaerobic layer is formed. The treatment of sewage or other wastewater with trickling filters is among the oldest and most well characterized treatment technologies.
A trickling filter is also often called a trickle filter, trickling biofilter, biofilter, biological filter or biological trickling filter. A schematic cross-section of the contact face of the bed media in a trickling filter A typical complete trickling filter system Treatment of other organicsSynthetic organic materials including solvents, paints, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, coking products and so forth can be very difficult to treat.
Treatment methods are often specific to the material being treated. Methods include Advanced Oxidation Processing, distillation, adsorption, vitrification, incineration, chemical immobilisation or landfill disposal. Some materials such as some detergents may be capable of bio-logical degradation and in such cases, a modified form of wastewater treatment can be used.
Treatment of acids and alkalisAcids and alkalis can usually be neutralised under controlled conditions. Neutralisation frequently produces a precipitate that will require treatment as a solid residue that may also be toxic. In some cases, gasses may be evolved requiring treatment for the gas stream.
Some other forms of treatment are usually required following neutralisation. Waste streams rich in hardness ions as from de-ionisation processes can readily lose the hardness ions in a buildup of precipitated calcium and magnesium salts. This preci-pitation process can cause severe furring of pipes and can, in extreme cases, cause the blockage of disposal pipes. Treatment is by concentration of de-ionisation waste waters and disposal to landfill or by careful pH management of the released wastewater.
Treatment of toxic materialsToxic materials including many organic materials, metals such as zinc, silver, cadmium, thallium, etc. Metals can often be preci-pitated out by changing the pH or by treatment with other chemicals. Many, however, are resistant to treatment or mitigation and may require concentration followed by land filling or recycling. Dissolved organics can be incinerated within the wastewater by Advanced Oxidation Process. Planning an Effluent Treatment Plant: Factors to ConsiderCertain factories are required by law to install an ETP but deciding what type of ETP to install, what components it should contain and how it is best managed can be quite complicated.
Skip to main content. Search form Search. Wastewater treatment methods pdf. Wastewater treatment methods pdf wastewater treatment methods pdf 1 A m Long Subsurface-flow Constructed Wetland in Egypt Academia. Some material is incorporated by reference from other methods in this part. The water-treatment methods described above can reduce the number of pathogens in water, but do not always eliminate them completely. A WWTP is basically a multiphase treatment of waste water 1 1.
Effluent Treatment Plant: Design, Operation And Analysis Of Waste Water Effluent Industrial waste water sources Iron and steel industryThe production of iron.
Haimi, A. Mikola, R. Vahala; Data analytics in control and operation of municipal wastewater treatment plants: qualitative analysis of needs and barriers. Water Sci Technol 15 December ; 82 12 : — This study aims to identify barriers and needs for the application of data analytics in municipal wastewater treatment.
The present study evaluates the performance efficiency of a wastewater treatment plant. A sewage treatment plant operating on biological treatment method Rotating Media Bio-Reactor with an average wastewater inflow of 6 MLD has been considered for the case study. Wastewater samples were collected at different stages of treatment units and analyzed for the major waste water quality parameters such as biological oxygen demand BOD , chemical oxygen demand COD , total suspended solids TSS , and biodegradability. The performance efficiency of waste water treatment plant along with the major secondary treatment unit as Rotating Media Bio-Reactor RMBR was calculated.
Wastewater treatment is a process used to remove contaminants from wastewater or sewage and convert it into an effluent that can be returned to the water cycle with acceptable impact on the environment, or reused for various purposes called water reclamation. Pollutants in wastewater are removed, converted or broken down during the treatment process.
It brings together the design of process, wastewater, clean water, industrial effluent and sludge treatment plants, looking at the different treatment objectives within each sub-sector, selection and design of physical, chemical and biological treatment processes, and the professional hydraulic design methodologies. This book will show you how to carry out the key steps in the process design of all kinds of water and effluent treatment plants. It provides an essential refresher on the relevant underlying principles of engineering science, fluid mechanics, water chemistry and biology, together with a thorough description of the heuristics and rules of thumb commonly used by experienced practitioners. The water treatment plant designer will also find specific advice on plant layout, aesthetics, economic considerations and related issues such as odor control. The information contained in this book is usually provided on the job by mentors so it will remain a vital resource throughout your career. You all must have this kind of questions in your mind. Below article will solve this puzzle of yours.
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