File Name: autonomy and foreign language learning holec .zip
Autonomy in the transition from foreign language learning to foreign language teaching. This paper discusses the historical development of the concept of teacher autonomy in foreign language education and its relationship to the idea of learner autonomy. Three major phases in the development of conceptions of teacher autonomy are reviewed, involving attention to teacher roles in autonomous learning projects, professional development and professional freedom.
Learner autonomy has been a popular concept in foreign language education in the past decades, especially in relation to lifelong learning skills. As the result of such practices, language teaching is now sometimes seen as the same as language learning, and it has placed the learner in the centre of attention in language learning education in some places. There is a comprehensive bibliography for learner autonomy. The term "learner autonomy" was first coined in by Henri Holec, the "father" of learner autonomy. Many definitions have since been given to the term, depending on the writer, the context, and the level of debate educators have come to.
Abstract Developing learner independence has an important role in the theory and practice of language teaching. Language learning is a lifelong endeavour, not one that begins and ends in a language class room. Most learners and teachers feel that language learning consumes a considerable amount of time. Learners have to work within and beyond the class room to develop their language skills. The notion of learner independence or learner autonomy moves into an area where learners can direct their own learning. It could mean those learning activities which take place without the immediate intervention of the teacher. In this scenario, learners set their own objectives and follow strategies devised by themselves to fulfil them.
We are autonomous in relation to a particular task when we can perform it i independently, without assistance from others, ii beyond the immediate context in which we acquired the knowledge and skills on which successful task performance depends, and iii flexibly, taking account of new and unexpected factors. Autonomy in this behavioural sense is a criterion of success in developmental learning, including first language acquisition; it is also a goal of educational systems to the extent that they seek to equip learners with knowledge and skills they can deploy spontaneously in their life beyond the classroom. The same is true of the autonomy that is a coincidental mark of success in formal learning. This chapter is concerned with knowledge about language in L2 learning contexts shaped by such a pedagogy. The concept of learner autonomy was first introduced into the ongoing debate about L2 learning and teaching by Henri Holec in a report published by the Council of Europe in Holec,
Language Editing Service. The characteristics of the collected data legitimated running Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient. The article concludes with some pedagogical implications and some avenues for future research. Abedi, J. Standardized achievement tests and English language learners: Psychometrics issues. Educational Assessment, 8,
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Kong University Press. Holec, H. (). Autonomy and Foreign Language Learning. Oxford: Pergamon.
This website is no longer being maintained. This article defines the autonomous learner; summarises arguments in favour of helping language learners to become autonomous; briefly considers the process of 'autonomisation' in language classrooms and self-access learning schemes; identifies some principal lines of research; and concludes by suggesting that the Council of Europe's European Language Portfolio may bring 'autonomisation' to much larger numbers of learners than hitherto and in doing so may provide an important focus for research. Learner autonomy is a problematic term because it is widely confused with self-instruction.
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Повисла тягостная тишина. Когда Мидж заговорила, ее голос был мрачным: - Стратмор мог обойти фильтры. Джабба снова вздохнул. - Это была шутка, Мидж. - Но он знал, что сказанного не вернешь. ГЛАВА 62 Коммандер и Сьюзан стояли у закрытого люка и обсуждали, что делать. - Итак, внизу у нас погибший Чатрукьян, - констатировал Стратмор.
Пока файл Цифровой крепости не подменен модифицированной версией, копия ключа, находившаяся у Танкадо, продолжает представлять собой огромную опасность. - Когда мы внесем эту поправку, - добавил Стратмор, - мне будет все равно, сколько ключей гуляет по свету: чем их больше, тем забавнее. - Он жестом попросил ее возобновить поиск. - Но пока этого не произошло, мы в цейтноте. Сьюзан открыла рот, желая сказать, что она все понимает, но ее слова были заглушены внезапным пронзительным звуком. Тишина шифровалки взорвалась сигналом тревоги, доносившимся из служебного помещения ТРАНСТЕКСТА.