File Name: types of glass and their uses .zip
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics. Firstly the glass was manufactured in Egypt. Ordinary glass is manufactured by the composition of various substances like silica, bleaching powder, oxides of alkaline metals, calcium oxide lime etc. Basically glass is the homogenous mixture of the silicates of various alkaline metals of non-crystalline and transparent or less transparent substances. These constituents of the glass are transformed into fine micro powder and after fusing these are melted into the furnaces at moderate temperature and ordinary glass is prepared by a suitable cooling mechanism of the molten or liquid glass.
The Float Process was invented by Sir Alastair Pilkington in , allowing larger and more consistent panels of glass to be manufactured than ever before.
These plants, which can be up to 1 kilometre long, produce a combined output of about , tonnes of glass a week! The ultimate strength of glass is related to the rate at which it is cooled. The molten glass is allowed to cool slowly in a controlled way until it reaches room temperature, relieving any internal stresses in the glass. Without this controlled slow cooling, glass would crack with relatively little change in temperature or slight mechanical shock.
Annealed glass is used as a base product to form more advanced glass types. Heat Strengthened Glass is semi tempered or semi toughened glass. The heat strengthening process involves heating annealed glass back up to about to degrees Celsius and then cooling it quickly, although not as fast as with toughened glass. The heat strengthening process increases the mechanical and thermal strength of annealed glass, making it twice as tough as annealed glass.
When it breaks the fragments are similar in size to annealed glass, but with a greater likelihood of staying together. This glass is not often used in balustrades or similar structural applications because of its limited strength compared to tempered or toughened glass, although is sometimes specified when there is concern about tempered glass fracturing into thousands of small pieces.
This is the most common type of glass used in balustrades or similar structural applications. Annealed glass is heated to about degrees Celsius by conduction, convection and radiation. The cooling process is accelerated by a uniform and simultaneous blast of air on both surfaces.
The different cooling rates between the surface and the inside of the glass produces different physical properties, resulting in compressive stresses in the surface balanced by tensile stresses in the body of the glass. This process makes the glass four to five times stronger and safer than annealed or untreated glass. The counteracting stresses or surface compression gives toughened glass its increased mechanical resistance to breakage, and when it does break, causes it to produce small, regular, typically square fragments rather than long, dangerous shards that are far more likely to lead to injuries.
Any one of the above types of glass can be laminated. The most commonly used finished product is two sheets of toughened glass, laminated together with a 1. Laminated glass offers many advantages. Safety and security are the best known of these, so rather than shattering on impact, laminated glass is held together by the interlayer. This reduces the safety hazard associated with shattered glass fragments, as well as, to some degree, the security risks associated with easy penetration. If a glass panel breaks or shatters it is highly unlikely that both laminated panels will break at the same time, which means that the remaining panel and interlayer will support the broken glass and keep it in place as edge protection until it is replaced or secured suitably.
The product offers 5 times the tear strength and times the rigidity of standard PVB. In the unlikely event of both panes of toughened glass breaking then the SGP will, in most applications, hold the glass in place.
SGP offers an enhanced impact performance and greater protection against severe weather. A variety of other interlayers are available which apply a range of other technologies to the application. Structural interlayers can be used to enhance the strength of the glass where high loadings are required.
Coloured interlayers can be used for privacy or purely decorative purposes. Other properties such as sound dampening and fire resistance can also be incorporated into the interlayer. Further details on glass are readily available from BA Systems, including glass thicknesses and fixing details when incorporated into balustrade systems. You can find out more about our systems on this page here. Back to blog.
There are many different types of glass. They differ in terms of their chemical composition, the method used to produce them or their processing behaviour. Generally, they are categorised according to their chemical composition. A differentiation is made between. These three types of glass make up around 95 percent of the cullet glass used in the production process. The remaining 5 percent of glass is special-purpose glass.
10 Types of Glasses [PDF]: Engineering Properties, and Applications in Constructions. 1: Use of Glass as Building Envelope. 2 Laminated Glass. 3: Shatterproof Glass. 4: Laminated Glass Used in Building Construction. 5: Extra Clean Glass. 6: Chromatic Glass. 7: Tinted Glass. 8: Toughened Glass.
It may be transparent or translucent and brittle. Sheet glass is manufactured by having molten glass pass through rollers to produce a nearly flat finish. However, the action of the rollers does leave the resulting sheets with some degree of distortion.
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