File Name: ages and stages questionnaire social emotional .zip
Our study aims to contribute to an understanding of the utility of mother-report questionnaires in clinical samples. The ASQ:SE is a brief parent-report questionnaire designed to identify young children and infants in need of further evaluation for social and emotional problems. Our study examines its validity in a clinical sample by comparing it to self-report questionnaires on maternal psychological distress, observer-rated qualities of mother-infant interaction, and interviewer-rated qualities of the mother-infant relationship.
Socioemotional development evolves within the infant's primary relationships. However, several factors can deleteriously affect early infant socioemotional development. One risk factor is parental mental illness e. Field et al. This was true not only when interacting with their mothers but also with strangers.
The adverse effects of maternal postnatal depression on the child's later cognitive functioning have been well documented e. Many authors have recommended parent-report questionnaires for screening and assessing infant social and emotional functioning e. The same correspondence was not found for the dysregulation subscales of the ITSEA, relating to eating and sleeping.
It has been shown to have acceptable psychometric properties Briggs-Gowan et al. The validation criteria included independent observer ratings of the child's behavior at home. The ASQ:SE has been validated in clinical and nonclinical populations, but criterion measures were based on parents' reports of child functioning and not on observer-rated behavior.
It is very important that the validity of such an instrument be established in relation to observed behavior as well as other parent-report instruments. Sameroff et al. They concluded that individual differences in the mother, rather than in the infant, may contribute to ratings of infant temperament. Similarly Vaughn et al. In contrast, these maternal factors were minimally related to observer ratings of infant behavior, and infant behavior was unrelated to maternal reports of infant temperament.
In clinical populations, maternal depression and anxiety may potentially bias parents' reports of child behavior and functioning e. For example, Field, Morrow, and Adelstein compared parent and observer ratings of the same videotaped mother-infant interaction. Depressed mothers' ratings of infant behavior also were addressed by Lee, Hans, and Thullen They compared young, prenatally depressed mothers' sensitive responsiveness to their newborn infants, as rated by trained observers, with scores on infants' disruptive behavior on the BITSEA at 12 months.
Depressed mothers were rated as being less sensitive in interactions. In contrast, these associations were not found for mothers with low levels of depression. The authors concluded that depressed women with insensitive responsiveness to their infants' cues also may perceive their infants' behavior as problematic. In the current climate, which advocates early screening methods for young babies, we need to clarify the constructs that screening questionnaires measure, especially in high-risk populations.
This is important for a number of reasons. Second, few studies have compared such screening instruments with observer-rated interactions, especially concerning very young infants. Third, few studies have been devoted to clinical samples. Finally, reported biases in mothers' perceptions of infant behavior and temperament might impact negatively on later infant development.
Rothbart and Hwang argued that recent studies have shown some convergence between parent-reported and observed measures of infant temperament, particularly as methods of assessment have improved. These authors also noted that the brief observations by independent raters are not necessarily a good standard for validating parents' reports based on a different context.
In consideration of this critique, our study compares the ASQ:SE not only with external assessments of brief interactions but also with clinical assessments of mother-infant relationships, and with three other questionnaires tapping maternal psychological distress.
It is a parent-report questionnaire in which the mother assesses her child's social and emotional functioning. She is asked questions such as "Does your baby smile at you and other family members? For babies 3 to 8 months of age, there are 22 items. For babies 9 to 14 months, there are 25 items, and for babies 15 to 20 months, there are 29 items.
The sample was drawn from both community and clinical sources. Questionnaires for the youngest age intervals months had moderately low internal consistencies of. Squires et al. We adjusted them according to the number of questions in each age group, which yielded the following cutoff scores: 2. Dyads were excluded if the mother had a current psychosis or an alcohol or drug dependence to an extent precluding cooperation.
Interviews took place between October and January Ninety mother-infant dyads met the inclusion criteria and chose to take part. After the interviews, four dyads dropped out of the study without completing the questionnaires, and in 16 cases, the interaction videos were unfeasible because the child was asleep or because of technical problems with the recording.
This study reports results for the remaining 68 mothers and infants. The mothers' mean age was All except 4 mothers lived with the child's father. Data collection. In-depth assessments of 90 min took place with the mothers and babies. A semistructured interview was adapted to the themes brought up by the mother. The interviewer also closely observed and recorded the baby's behavior and contact with the mother. Mothers and infants were video recorded while interacting together for 10 min, in the interviewer's absence.
Mothers were instructed to be together with their child as they normally would. Finally, mothers were asked to complete four self-report questionnaires at home. InstrumentsObserver-based assessments of parent-infant interaction. It is comprised of four maternal subscales: Sensitivity, Structuring, Nonintrusiveness, and Nonhostility, and two infant subscales: Responsiveness and Involvement.
Nonintrusiveness refers to an absence of overdirectiveness, overstimulation, interference toward the child, with the mother thus respecting the child's autonomy. Nonhostility refers to the absence of overt and covert hostile behavior and attitudes toward the child. Finally, child involvement "assesses the degree to which the child attends to and engages the parent in play" p.
Interrater reliability for the EAS is reported to be high after training, with correlations around. The subscales' ranges differ between 1 to 5 and 1 to 9. We adjusted scores to these different ranges and then calculated the means of the four maternal subscales and the two infant subscales, respectively.
In our sample, the average EAS Mother mean was. These assessments were based on interactions with free play or situations in which the mother thought the child's behavior indicated hunger and fed him or her. Behavioral as well as emotional qualities were rated and subsumed under each EAS subscale. Two independent and blind raters carried out the coding of the interactions on the EAS; one a psychologist and one a child psychiatrist, both with substantial clinical experience with infants.
Regular seminars were held to keep rating quality at a high level and to minimize rater drift. In the EAS literature, different methods of assessing interrater reliability have been used. We regard the EAS scores as quantitative data and followed the standard practice of calculating interrater reliability for quantitative variables i.
This was done on each subscale for 31 dyads assessed by both raters. We used the rater means on each subscale for calculations. Clinical assessments of the mother-baby relationship.
On the basis of three components behavioral interactive quality, affective tone, and psychological involvement , a global judgment is made on a scale of 0 documented maltreatment to 99 well-adapted.
Interrater reliability assessments were carried out by an independent psychologist, who has no allegiance to mother-infant psychoanalytic treatment and who has extensive experience in infant clinical work and PIR-GAS ratings. In the statistical analyses, we used the means of the two ratings for those dyads assessed by two raters. Instrument assessing maternal depression. This questionnaire is widely used internationally, including at Swedish child health centers.
A Swedish validation study Wickberg et al. The EPDS has been shown to have good sensitivity. Wickberg and Hwang found corresponding scores in a sample of 1, Gothenburg mothers to be 6.
In our sample, the mean EPDS score was Instrument assessing symptoms of maternal psychological distress. The SCL has been used for evaluating the effects of group therapy for postpartum depression Hofecker-Fallahpour et al. Fridell et al. Similarly, intercorrelations between the nine subscales originally devised by Derogatis also are high.
The mean GSI of our sample was. Instrument assessing maternal stress.
The master set (“Master rnasystemsbiology.org”) includes the following in a single PDF file: ASQ:SE- 2 questionnaires, cover sheets that collect basic identifying information.
The following developmental and social-emotional screening instruments are recommended for use in Minnesota programs that provide screening for children years of age. This list is approved as of July, and will be updated as new or revised developmental screening instruments are reviewed, and in response to statutory, rule, or regulatory changes that impact comprehensive screening programs in Minnesota. Instruments at a Glance for Minnesota Clinics and Providers PDF lists a subset of recommended screening instruments that are more practical for use in primary care clinics. Screening programs in Minnesota have varying requirements for developmental screening instruments.
Mental health is an urgent public health challenge, and for some individuals the problem starts already in pre-school age. Increased knowledge is needed to guide evidence-based health-promoting interventions and early identification for adequate parental support. This instrument has seven psychological domains self-regulation, compliance, communication, adaptive functioning, autonomy, affect, and interaction ; built up by 31 items, responded on a 3-point Likert scale with total scores Item scores are combined into a total score with high values indicating social-emotional vulnerability. Most parents give informed consent for research and the study has ethical approval.
With standardized screening tools, research studies have shown that developmental disabilities can be detected reliably and with validity in children as young as 4 months of age by using the instruments such as the Ages and Stages Questionnaire. In this review, we will focus on one tool, the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, to illustrate the usefulness of developmental screening across the globe. Early childhood is a critical period because the first five years of life are fundamentally important, and early experiences provide the base for brain development and functioning throughout life.
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